The Office of Strategic Services

Counterintelligence and Security

Bentley, Elizabeth. Out of Bondage: The Story of Elizabeth Bentley. New York: Devin-Adair, 1951. "Afterword" by Hayden Peake. New York: Ivy Books, 1988.

Cowden, Robert. "OSS Double-Agent Operations in World War II." Studies in Intelligence 58, no. 2 (Jun. 2914): 35-45.

Though brief in duration, the double-agent operations of OSS's counterintelligence division (X-2) "provided significant counterintelligence value by enabling the Allies to understand and ultimately control Abwehr espionage activities in France after the invasion. Secondarily, the double agents also offered tactical contributions to several deception oprations."

Foster, Jane. An Unamerican Lady. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1980.

Constantinides notes that Foster, who worked in Morale Operations with OSS during World War II, was indicted with her husband in 1957 as Soviet agents. In discussing her OSS experiences, Foster "relates much about personal, social, and administrative matters but precious little about her operations." With regard to the charges brought against her, she denies being a Soviet agent but admits that she lied about her Communist Party membership and marital status.

The indictment against Foster came on the basis of information from FBI double agent Boris Morros. See Morros, My Ten Years as a Counterspy (1959). See also, Conant, A Covert Affair (2011).

Kirschner, Don S. Cold War Exile: The Unclosed Case of Maurice Halperin. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1995.

Clark comment: Accused by Elizabeth Bentley of passing OSS secrets to the Soviets during World War II, Maurice Halperin fled to Mexico, Moscow, Cuba, and eventually Vancouver. That he was a spy for the Soviet Union not a scapegoat during the peak of the McCarthy era seems well established.

Surveillant 4.4/5 calls this book "a sympathetic historical analysis of a dyed-in-the-wool leftist." Peake, "OSS and the Venona Decrypts," I&NS 12.3 (Jul. 1997), 25-26, links Halperin to two cypytonyms in the Venona traffic -- "Hare" and, later, "Stowaway" -- but acknowledges that "there is no way to positively identify him as 'Hare' working solely from the messages released." See Haynes, Klehr, and Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (2009), pp. 312-314, for a clear connection of Halperin to the cypytonym "Hare."

Peake, Hayden B. "OSS and the Venona Decrypts." Intelligence and National Security 12, no. 3 (Jul. 1997): 14-34.

The focus here is the Soviet wartime penetration of OSS Headquarters. Even more specifically, Peake explores in detail the interaction between Elizabeth Bentley's revelations and the recently released Venona decrypts in terms of what is revealed about Soviet agents working in OSS' domestic components.

Although the argumentation is too finely detailed to restate succinctly, the author decides that Bentley's accusations are, in the main, supported by the information in the Venona materials. And where they are not supported, they are also not refuted. Peake concludes that "the Soviet intelligence services did a very thorough job of penetrating the domestic elements of OSS." However, the Soviets successes "pose a paradox. They were numerous and productive..., but to date there is no direct evidence of damage that affected the OSS wartime mission in the United States."

Peake, Hayden B. "Soviet Espionage and the Office of Strategic Services." In America Unbound: World War II and the Making of a Superpower, ed. Warren F. Kimball, 107-138. New York: St. Martin's, 1992.

This study was published prior to the release of the Venona material and was based on available FBI files.

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