WORLD WAR II

Europe

The Resistance Movement

Other Countries

 Included here:

1. Austria

2. Belgium

3. Denmark

1. Austria

Gardiner, Muriel. Code Name "Mary." New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1983. 1987. [pb]

From Publishers Weekly (via Amazon.com): "Born into a wealthy Chicago meat-packing family, Gardiner, a psychoanalyst and educator, here focuses on her years in Vienna after the Nazi Anschluss, when she aided Jews and others." Clark comment: There is some debate whether Gardiner, rather than Lillian Hellman, was the basis for "Julia" in Pentimento. See Lauren Black and Paul Mickle, "1977: Who Was the Real Heroine?" at http://www.capitalcentury.com/1977.html. See also, Isenberg, Muriel's War (2010); and Stephen Spender, "Was She Julia?" London Review of Books 5.12 (7 Jul. 1983).

Isenberg, Sheila. Muriel's War: An American Heiress in the Nazi Resistance. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

From publisher: American heiress Muriel Gardiner's "adventurous life led her from Chicago's high society to a Viennese medical school, from Sigmund Freud's inner circle to the Austrian underground. Over the years, she saved countless Jews and anti-fascists, providing shelter and documents ensuring their escape. This remarkable woman's life as a legend of the Austrian Resistance was captured in the movie Julia with Vanessa Redgrave."

Blank, http://www.jewishbookcouncil.org (undated), comments that Gardiner "may have been the woman, as Isenberg claims -- as had others before her, including writer Mary McCarthy -- who inspired the title character in the film 'Julia,' even though playwright Lillian Hellman denied it." Unfortunately, in this work, "Gardiner doesn't come to life as vividly as the many men the beautiful Gardiner had affairs with."

Molden, Fritz. Exploding Star: A Young Austrian against Hitler. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1978. New York: Morrow, 1979.

Constantinides: The author was involved in organizing Austrian resistance to Hitler, and had contact with the Swiss, French, and U.S. intelligence services. Persico's Piercing the Reich "provides insights not contained in Molden's account."

Steinacher, Gerald. "The Special Operations Executive (SOE) in Austria, 1940-1945." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 15, no. 2 (Summer 2002): 211-221.

"Austrian Resistance was almost entirely passive: no open resistance, no partisan movement, and no leader of note produced (with the exception of [Karl] Gruber)."

 2. Belgium

Bodson, Herman. Agent for the Resistance: A Belgian Saboteur in World War II. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1994.

Surveillant 3.6: "The transformation of a pacifist student into an explosives expert in the Belgian underground forms the thread of this harrowing account."

Debruyne, Emmanuel. "Le gouvernement en exil: Un service secret en exil. L'Administration de la Sûreté de l'État à Londres, Novembre 1940-Septembre 1944." Cahiers d'histoire du temps présent 15 (2005): 335-355.

Doneux, Jacques [Captain]. They Arrived by Moonlight. London: St Ermin's, 2001.

From publisher: "Doneux reveals his six perilous months operating a secret radio-set under the very noses of the Gestapo. He parachuted into enemy-occupied Belgium on a moonlit night in 1943 and lived with danger 24 hours a day. Here he records his adventures, including a 23-hour trek across the Pyrenees."

Eisner, Peter. The Freedom Line: The Brave Men and Women Who Rescued Allied Airmen from the Nazis during World War II. New York: HarperCollins, 2004. New York: Harper Perennial, 2005. [pb]

Taylor, Booklist (via Amazon.com), finds that this work is about "a Belgian escape-and-evasion organization called the Comet Line. Many of its operatives were caught, but a few escaped; now in their eighties, they shared their reminiscences" with the author. "The Comet Line rescued Allied pilots shot down over Belgium and smuggled them across France to Spain. An American B-17 pilot whom Eisner interviewed, Robert Grimes, supplies the example of how the Comet Line clandestinely spirited its charges past the Gestapo to the Pyrenees."

Foot, M.R.D.

1. SOE in the Low Countries. London: HMSO, 2001.

One of the World War II events that continues to draw speculation is SOE's disaster in the Netherlands in 1942-1943. Over 40 agents were dropped into the lap of the German security forces. Speculation that London betrayed those individuals for its own purposes refuses to go away. In a "Research Note: The Dutch Affair," Intelligence and National Security 20, no. 2 (Jun. 2005): 341-343, M.R.D. Foot does his best to put an end to such speculation. SOE in the Low Countries is the official history that encompasses this episode, and Foot is adamant that incompetence, not perfidy, brought on this debacle.

2. "SOE in the Low Countries." In Special Operations Executive: A New Instrument of War, ed. Mark Seaman, 83-90. London: Routledge, 2006.

Moore, Bob, ed. Resistance in Western Europe. Oxford and New York: Berg, 2000,.

Foot, I&NS 16.1, finds this work to be a "useful summary of the state of research into resistance to Nazism" in Belgium, the Channel Islands, Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and Norway. The author has written the introductory and concluding chapters. He sides with those who argue that the "resistance was not of a great deal of use."

Rigby, Francoise Labourverie. In Defiance. London: Elek, 1960.

Wilcox says this is an "[a]cccount ... of the resistance movement in Belgium" in World War II.

 

3. Denmark

Haestrup, Jorgen. Secret Alliance: A Study of the Danish Resistance Movement, 1940-45. 3 vols. New York: New York University Press, 1975-1977.

Hansen, Peer Henrik.

1. Second to None: US Intelligence Activities in Northern Europe 1943-1946. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Republic of Letters Publishing, 2011.

Peake, Studies 55.4 (Dec. 2011) and Intelligencer 19.1 (Winter-Spring 2012), :notes that this work covers both World War II and immediate postwar relations between the Allies and the Danish Intelligence Service. The author's "research in US and Danish archives has produced a unique book on a topic not treated in any depth elsewhere."

2. "When the Americans Came to Europe: U.S. Intelligence in Northern Europe 1943-46." American Intelligence Journal 26, no. 2 (Winter 2008-2009): 42-53.

The focus here is on OSS (in competition with the British) activities concerning Denmark during and immediately after World War II. "Mutual interest [between the United States and Denmark] created a close cooperation in 1945-46 that eventually resulted in more formal agreements about joint HUMINT and SIGINT actitivies."

Jespersen, Knud J.V.

1. No Small Achievement: Special Operations Executive and the Danish Resistance 1940-1945. Odense, Denmark: University Press of Southern Denmark, 2002.

Peake, Studies 48.1, notes that the author worked with both SOE and Danish files and discusses competing views of the Danish resistance. In the end, Jesperson finds that SOE's most important contribution in Denmark was the impact on "restor[ing] national pride and political unity."

2. "SOE and Denmark." In Special Operations Executive: A New Instrument of War, ed. Mark Seaman, 193-200. London : Routledge, 2006.

Lampe, David. The Savage Canary: The Story of Resistance in Denmark. London: Cassell, 1957. The Danish Resistance. New York: Ballantine, 1960. [pb]

http://www.cloakanddagger.com/dagger: "Story of one of the finest national resistance movements in WWII."

Moore, Bob, ed. Resistance in Western Europe. Oxford and New York: Berg, 2000,.

Foot, I&NS 16.1, finds this work to be a "useful summary of the state of research into resistance to Nazism" in Belgium, the Channel Islands, Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and Norway. The author has written the introductory and concluding chapters. He sides with those who argue that the "resistance was not of a great deal of use."

Petrow, Richard. The Bitter Years: The Invasion and Occupation of Denmark and Norway, April 1940-May 1945. New York: Morrow, 1974.

Constantinides calls this an "incomplete, if good, version" of the intelligence aspects of the author's story.

Sutherland, Christine. Monica: Heroine of the Danish Resistance. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1990.

Surveillant 1.2: This book is a biography of "Monica Massy Beresford Wichfield, an Irish aristocrat, educated in England and Europe," who became "a leading member of the Danish Resistance." She was eventually "betrayed & sentenced to death."

Thomas, John Oram. The Giant Killers: the Story of the Danish Resistance Movement, 1940-1945. New York: Taplinger, 1976. London: Michael Joseph, 1976.

Constantinides sees The Giant Killers as an "episodic, disconnected work wherein the author tells or lets individuals relate particular experiences." In addition, it lacks indications of sources, while relating verbatim conversations. The book should be read along with the more general account in Petrow's The Bitter Years.

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