The Resistance Movement in Europe


Army Times. Editors. Heroes of the Resistance. New York: Dodd Mead, 1967.

"Summary" from Miami University Libraries, "Accounts of the people who fought back, throughout Europe, against the Nazi terror, describing the courage and daring of such operations as printing clandestine newspapers, blowing up bridges, and helping allies escape."

Collotti, Enzo. "L'occupation allemande, la résistance, les alliés: essai d'historiographie" [The German Occupation, the Resistance and the Allies: A Bibliographical Study]. Revue d'histoire de la deuxième guerre mondiale 23, no. 92 (1973): 21-36.

Conference on Britain and European Resistance. Proceedings of a Conference on Britain and European Resistance, 1939-1945: Organized by St. Antony's College, Oxford. Oxford: St. Antony's College, 1963.

According to Pforzheimer, this volume consists of "papers prepared by distinguished scholars and participants in Resistance activities." It is an "important work,... perhaps the best compendium of its kind," but it was "issued in an edition of less than 100 copies."

Cook, Chris, et. al. War and Resistance. London: Macmillan, 1992.

Surveillant 2.2: "The papers of over 1,000 individuals, including military and naval commanders as well as resistance fighters and underground leaders."

Foot, M.R.D. Resistance: European Resistance to Nazism, 1940-1945. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977. London: Methuen, 1978.

Pforzheimer says that, because of the scope undertaken, this book is afflicted with "some degree of superficiality and absence of detail"; but it "serves as a primer ... to the subject..., including the roles of SOE and OSS." There are some factual errors in the country-by-country surveys. Constantinides notes the inclusion of "important facts, incidents, and anecdotes," even given the superficiality of the work. "A very useful bibliography can be found in the footnotes."

Garlinski, Jozef. Hitler's Last Weapons: The Underground War Against the V1 and V2.  London: Friedmann, 1978. New York: Times Books, 1978.

Constantinides sees Garlinski as most concerned with "the contributions of the resistance, especially that of the Poles," to halting German development and deployment of the V weapons.

Haestrup, Jorgen. European Resistance Movements, 1939-1945: A Complete History. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1981.

From publisher: "Haestrup profiles the resistance movements as an integral part of the total history of the war. He analyzes their different approaches and levels of resistance in each occupied nation -- describing their organization, intelligence-gathering and sabotage achievements, labor strikes, civil disobedience, politics, supplies, external communication, assassinations, and partisan warfare."

Harris, Larry, and Brian Taylor. Escape to Honour: The True Story of Hans Nütt, Anti-Nazi German, French Resistance Fighter and British Spy. Toronto: Macmillan, 1984. London: Robert Hale, 1985.

Description from "The gripping true story of Hans Nutt, a young German who escaped from the Nazis to join the French Resistance and work as a British spy."

International Conference on the History of the European Resistance Movements.

1. European Resistance Movements, 1939-45. London: Pergamon, 1960.

According to an anonymous reviewer (probably Walter Pforzheimer) in Studies 5.4 (Fall 1961), this work constitutes the record of the First International Conference on the History of the Resistance Movements, held in Belgium (Liege and Brussels) in September 1958.

2. European Resistance Movements, 1939-45: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the History of the Resistance Movements Held at Milan 26-29 March 1961. London: Pergamon, 1964.

According to Pforzheimer, this book contains "the formal papers presented at the Conference by historians of and participants in the various WWII Resistance movements." Because of the heavy propagandistic slant of the Soviet and Bloc papers, the floor debates were acrimonious and have not been included.

Judt, Tony, ed. Resistance and Revolution in Mediterranean Europe, 1939-1948. London: Routledge, 1989.

Hunt, I&NS 6.3, notes that the "theme of this scholarly work is the part played by the Communist parties of southern Europe in the resistance to German occupation" in World War II and its immediate aftermath. The book consists of an introduction ("a spectacular piece of writing"), a chapter on the Comintern, and chapters on France, Italy, Yugoslavia, and Greece.

Macksey, Kenneth John. The Partisans of Europe in the Second World War. London: Hart-Davis MacGibbon, 1975. The Partisans of Europe in World War II. New York: Stein & Day, 1975.

Constantinides says that the author's thesis is that "guerrilla warfare in World War II was marginal in its contribution to victory and costly for the results attained.... His conclusions in this book have not gone unchallenged."

Maclaren, Roy. Canadians Behind Enemy Lines, 1939-1945. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 1981. 2004. [pb]

Concerns Canadians who worked with various Allied organizations and European Resistance forces during World War II.

Masaryk, Jan, et al. The Sixth Column: Inside the Nazi-Occupied Countries. New York: Alliance Book Corp., 1942.

Multiple authors provide coverage across multiple European countries.

Mawdsley, Evan. "Anti-German Insurgency and Allied Grand Strategy." Journal of Strategic Studies 31, no. 5 (2008): 695-719.

McKay, Craig Graham. A Friend Indeed: The Secret Service of Lolle Smit. Aug. 2010. At:

This is a Web-only article that comes out of the author's ongoing research involving Raoul Wallenberg. McKay uses his wide-ranging research to tell the intriguing story of Smit's actions in, first, Bucharest and, from September 1941, Budapest while working for the well-known Dutch company Philips. The author links Smit to intelligence-related activities with both the British SIS and the American ONI, as well as with rescue operations for Jews.

Michel, Henri. The Shadow War: European Resistance, 1939-1945. New York: Harper & Row, 1972. The Shadow War: Resistance in Europe, 1939-1945. London: Andre Deutsch, 1972.

Pforzheimer, Studies 19.2 (Summer 1975), is unimpressed with this book. He notes that one of the author's weaknesses is "a comparative lack of knowledge ... of the resistance movements in European countries other than France." Michel shows his anti-Americanism in his denigration of OSS's contribution to the Resistance. But, then, "Michel has the ability to overlook many facts of history." In addition, the book's bibliography "is both thin and not very representative."

Miksche, Ferdinand Otto. Secret Forces: The Technique of Underground Movements. London: Faber & Faber, 1950. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1971.

From The author escaped Czechoslovakia "at the end of the 1930s, and spent WWII in various positions with the Allied Forces. He served for some time during the war" on De Gaulle's "personal staff..., and became advisor on central European affairs to SHAEF in 1945. After the war, he was appointed Czechoslovakian Military Attaché for both France & Belgium, but after the communist regime took power in Czechoslovakia in 1948, he accepted a commission in the French Army."

Moore, Bob, ed. Resistance in Western Europe. Oxford and New York: Berg, 2000,.

Foot, I&NS 16.1, finds this work to be a "useful summary of the state of research into resistance to Nazism" in Belgium, the Channel Islands, Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and Norway. The author has written the introductory and concluding chapters. He sides with those who argue that the "resistance was not of a great deal of use."

Myers, Lawrence W. SPYCOMM: Covert Communication Techniques of the Underground. [U.S.]: Paladin, 1992. [Surveillant 2.5]

Orbaan, Albert. Duel in the Shadows: True Accounts of Anti-Nazi Underground Warfare During World War II. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1965.

Library Journal (via "The history of the resistance to the Nazis in France, Denmark, Norway and the Benelux countries, retold from accounts of individual underground fighters."

Reiss, Curt. Underground Europe. New York: Dial, 1942.

This is essentially a propaganda piece written for wartime use, showing that the peoples of Europe were continuing to resist Hitler.

Schurmacher, Emile Carlos. Assignment X: Top Secret. New York: Paperback Library, 1965.

Wilcox: "Clandestine operations in German-occupied Europe" during World War II.

Seth, Ronald.

1. Noble Saboteurs: The Resistance Against Hitler's Forces. New York: Hawthorne, 1966.

2. The Undaunted: The Story of Resistance in Western Europe. London: Muller, 1956. [pb]

Stone, Harry. Writing in the Shadow: Newspapers and Books Published by the Resistance Movements of Occupied Europe During the Second World War. London: Frank Cass, 1996.

The author surveys the production and distribution of clandestine newspapers and books in the occupied countries of Europe, activities that served to maintain morale in the occupied nations and to undermine German control.

Warren, Harris G. Special Operations: AAF Aid to European Resistance Movements, 1943-1945. Washington, DC: Air Force Historical Office, HQ Army Air Force, 1947. Washington, DC: Military Affairs, 1947. [pb]

Knouse,, comments that this work is "[h]eavy on supply of the Partisans in the Mediterranean Theater and [has] a good deal of information relating to the 406th Night Leaflet Squadron, which operated out of Cheddington and on Detached Service at Harrington."

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