Ste - Z

Stephan, Enno. Geheimauftrag Irland. Deutsche Agenten im irischen Untergrundkampf 1939-1945. Hamburg: Gerhard Stalling Verlag, 1961. Spies in Ireland. Tr., Arthur Davidson. London: Macdonald, 1963. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole, 1965.

Steury, Donald P. "Naval Intelligence, the Atlantic Campaign and the Sinking of the Bismarck: A Study in the Integration of Intelligence into the Conduct of Naval Warfare." Journal of Contemporary History 22, no. 2 (Apr. 1987): 209-233.

Sexton says that this "valuable source" covers the functioning of both British and German intelligence.

Stewart, Richard A. "Rommel's Secret Weapon: Signals Intelligence." Marine Corps Gazette 74 (Mar. 1990): 51-55.

Sexton notes that this article looks at the activities of Wireless Intercept Company 621 in the 1941-1942 campaigns, connecting direction finding and intercepts to Rommel's actions.

Toliver, Raymond F. The Interrogator: The Story of Hanns Joachim Scharff, Master Interrogator of the Luftwaffe. Atglen, PA: Schiffer, 1997.

According to Kleinman, DIJ 14.1 (2005), this is the "detailed -- and entertaining --" story of "how one skilled interrogator using creative, noncoercive [italics in original] methods was able to compile a comprehensive database on the Allied Forces air order of battle." His work involved "the systematic questioning of U.S. prisoners-of-war, many of whom had received training in how to resist interrogation and almost all of whom were certain ... that they had not divulged a single item of intelligence data."

U.S. Army Security Agency. European Axis Signal Intelligence in the Second World War. 9 vols. Washington, DC: Army Security Agency, 1946. []

• Volume 1: Synopsis
• Volume 2: Notes on German High Level Cryptography and Cryptanalysis
• Volume 3: The Signal Intelligence Agency of the Supreme Command, Armed Forces
• Volume 4: The Signal Intelligence Service of the Army High Command
• Volume 5: The German Air Force Signal Intelligence Service
• Volume 6: The Foreign Office Cryptanalytic Section
• Volume 7: Goering's "Research" Bureau
• Volume 8: Miscellaneous
• Volume 9: German Traffic Analysis of Russian Communications

U.S. War Department. Military Intelligence Division. German Military Intelligence, 1939 to 1945. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1984.

From "Editor's Note": "Published here ... are two hitherto classified studies of German military intelligence in World War II.... Both were completed shortly after the war in Europe ended. The first is 'The German G-2 Service in the Russian Campaign (Ic-Dienst Ost).' ... The second is 'German Operational Intelligence.' ... [T]hese documents constitute a consise, contemporary, and objective analysis of an enemy's military intelligence service a[t] the operational level."

van der Meulen, Michael. "German WW II Documents on Cryptography and Cryptanalysis." International Intelligence History Study Group Newsletter 6, no. 1 (Summer 1998). [http://]

"At the end of April 1998, the FOIA Office of the NSA submitted a list of translated German World War II documents related to cryptography and cryptanalysis.... Footnote 1 of the document DF 210 ... reveals the origin of the 'DF'-series as a collection of miscellaneous translations of German documents which were received by the early TICOM section of the Signal Security Agency and kept within a special folder for documents related to TICOM material... The introduction to the listing further states that early translations made at Army Security Agency ... were not numbered but sent to GCHQ, England w[h]ere they were issued in the TICOM/D series."

Watt, D. Cameron. "The Sender der deutschen Freiheitpartei: A First Step in the British Radio War against Nazi Germany." Initelligence and National Security 11, no. 1 (Jul. 1991): 621-626.

This article includes a comparison of British and German radio propaganda activities and styles, and comments on how the political leaders of the two countries viewed their efforts.

Weinberg, Gerhard. "Aspects of World War II German Intelligence." Journal of Intelligence History 4, no.1 (Summer 2004). []

Weinberg, Gerhard L. Germany, Hitler, and World War II: Essays in Modern German and World History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Rich, WIR 14.3: Weinberg "argues convincingly that the interaction between the European and Pacific theaters of war has been neglected.... Each chapter contains grist for intelligence mills.... Weinberg describes the deception operations for the D-Day landings that have not always been given the attention they deserve while fully crediting the role of intelligence in creating the conditions of success.... In the constant battle to make certain that intelligence studies are incorporated into mainstream history, we have an obligation to take into account authorities such as Weinberg, one of those significant writers whose insights demand a rethinking of World War II issues."

Whaley, Barton. Codeword Barbarossa. London & Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1973.

According to Constantinides, Whaley's central thesis is that "Hitler did succeed in deceiving Stalin about his intentions in 1941." In keeping with his model, Whaley finds the key to the surprise in deception activities. The author is "first-rate in research, and his industry and ability to relate diverse data are laudable." Some critics point out, however, that there is no specific evidence that Stalin was influenced by German deception operations. Pforzheimer comments that this work "has much to offer the serious student of intelligence," whether or not one agrees with all of the author's interpretations.

Whiting, Charles. The Battle for Twelveland: An Account of Anglo-American Intelligence Operations Within Nazi Germany, 1939-1945. London, Leo Cooper, 1975. The Spymasters: The True Story of Anglo-American Intelligence Operations Within Nazi Germany, 1939-1945. New York: Dutton, 1976.

Constantinides says this is "a potpourri of fact and fiction, actuality and myth, assumptions, sketchy versions of certain events, contrived tie-ins, and a certain confusion." Nevertheless, the author is "sometimes so accurate as to indicate access to well-informed sources or successful combining of certain versions." There is also "a good segment on SIS's role and the basis of its intelligence successes against Germany."

Willis, Jeffrey R. The Wehrmacht Propaganda Branch: German Military Propaganda and Censorship during World War II. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms, 1976. [Wilcox]

Ziemke, Earl F. "Operation Kreml: Deception, Strategy, and the Fortunes of War." Parameters 9, no. 1 (Mar. 1979): 72-83.

KREML was a German deception operation against the Soviet Union in 1941.

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