WORLD WAR II

Germany

P - Std

Paehler, Katrin. "Creating an Alternative Foreign Office: A Reassessment of Office VI of the Reich Main Security Office." Journal of Intelligence History 8, no. 2 (Winter 2008-2009). [http://www.intelligence-history.org/jih/journal.html]

Puri, Samir. "The Role of Intelligence in Deciding the Battle of Britain." Intelligence and National Security 21, no. 3 (Jun. 2006): 416-439.

For the RAF, "[t]he operational contribution made by intelligence was highly significant simply because enemy attacks could only be repelled if they had been anticipated." For the Luftwaffe, however, "[t]he faulty intelligence that was supplied proved highly detrimental."

Pryser, Tore. Hitlers hemmelige agenter: tysk etterretning i Norge 1939-1945. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2001.

McKay, I&NS 17.4, says that the author "has produced an ambitious and wide-ranging study of great interest. He has sought not merely to describe in some detail the range of activities of the principal German services.... In addition, he has explored the social background, motivation and mentality of those people who worked in them whether as officers or agents.... Pryser's book ... will be found indispensable to anyone doing serious historical work on the German intelligence and security organs during World War II or on the history of Norway during the German occupation."

Ratcliff, R. A. [Rebecca Ann]

1. Delusions of Intelligence: Enigma, Ultra, and the End of Secure Ciphers. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Freedman, FA 86.1 (Jan.-Feb. 2007), calls this a "superb work of forensic history." The author explores the reasons why the Germans were so surprised when the story of Ultra finally became public in the mid-1970s. "Reading the book requires attention to organizational structures and the principles of cryptanalysis, but it is well worth the effort." Goulden, Intelligencer 15.2 (Fall-Winter 2006-2007) and Washington Times, 15 Oct. 2006, finds this to be "a sprightly account" that "is a splendid contribution to signals intelligence." It "covers much new material" and is "[h]ighly recommended as a fi[n]e cloak-and-dagger read."

For Peake, Studies 51.1 (Mar. 2007), even the author's "illustrations and thorough documentation ... provide[] no basis for concluding communications cannot be secure in the future." To Kruh, Cryptologia 31.3 (Jul. 2007), the author has written an "excellent" and "exceptionally informative book." Gallehawk, Cryptologia 32.1 (Jan. 2008), finds "some loose or inaccurate descriptions of technical matters, and indeeed, some omissions." Nonetheless, it "is a major addition to the existing literatrure on code breaking" during World War II.

2. "Searching for Security: The German Investigations into Enigma's Security." Intelligence and National Security 14, no. 1 (Spring 1999): 146-167.

Rather than address the possibility that their cipher machine could be broken, the Germans tended to focus on "human betrayal," that is, a high-level spy, and Allied technical superiority in areas other than cryptanalytic work.

Reile, Oskar.

1. Die deutsche Abwehr im Osten, 1921-1945. Munich: Verlag Welsermüehl, 1969. Der Deutsche Geheim Dienst im II. Weltkrieg: Ostfront. Augsburg: Weltbild Verlag, 1989.

2. Geheime Westfront: Die Abwehr, 1935-45. Munich: Verlag Welsermüehl, 1962. Der Deutsche Geheim Dienst im II. Weltkrieg: Westfront. Augsburg: Weltbild Verlag, 1990.

3. Kalter Krieg: Heisses Euopa. Munich: Verlag Welsermüehl, 1965.

Rogers, James T., and Graham Yost, eds. The Shadow War: Espionage and World War II. New York: Facts on File, 1991.

Surveillant 2.5 says that this book "[p]rovides clear compelling accounts of American, British, German, and Japanese espionage and counterespionage organizations, their missions, their successes and failures.... Carefully researched."

Rout, Leslie B., Jr., and John F. Bratzel. Shadow War: German Espionage and United States Counterespionage in Latin America during World War II. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1986.

Haglund, I&NS 4.3, finds that the authors have provided excessive detail ("almost numbing") in this "definitive study" of the "wartime German-American undercover rivalry" in Mexico, Brazil, Chile, and Argentina. The work "could use a bit more analysis and synthesis."

Scannell, James.

1. "Captain Herman Goertz: Activities of a German Secret Agent During WW2 in Ireland." [Precis of a talk given on 10 Aug. 2004 at meeting of the Genealogical Society of Ireland] Genealogical Society of Ireland 5, no. 4 (Winter 2004): 207-217.

Parachuted into Ireland in May 1940, Goertz was arrested in November 1941 and interned through the remainder of the war. Facing deportation, he committed suicide in May 1947.

2. "German Espionage in South County Dublin." Dublin Historical Record 55 (2002): 88-101.

Schellenberg, Walter. The Labyrinth: The Memoirs of Walter Schellenberg, Hitler's Chief of Counterintelligence. New York: Harper, 1956. The Schellenberg Memoirs: A Record of Nazi Secret Service.Trans., Louis Hagen. London: André Deutsch, 1956. New York: Pyramid, 1958. [Abridged pb.] New York: Da Capo, 2000. [pb]

According to Pforzheimer, "Schellenberg headed the foreign intelligence department of the Sicherheitsdienst of the Nazi party's Security Administration," and in 1944 assumed control of the Abwehr as well. "In the light of later facts, this book should be read with caution." Mader, Military Intelligence 30.2 (Apr.-Jun. 2004), notes that Schellenberg concludes that the failures of Nazi intelligence in Word War II were "not due to a lack of ability but rather to a lack of historical integration of intelligence into the command structure."

Constantinides suggests that it would be wise to heed the warnings about this book included in Alan Bullock's introduction. Bullock cautioned that "it would be wise not to accept Schellenberg as a trustworthy witness of events unless there is corroboration." There are inaccuracies, significant omissions, and gaps. See also, Doerries, Hitler's Intelligence Chief (2009); and Doerries, ed., Hitler’s Last Chief of Foreign Intelligence: Allied Interrogations of Walter Schellenberg (2003).

Schmeh, Klaus. "Enigma's Contemporary Witness: Gisbert Hasenjaeger." Cryptologia 33, no. 4 (Oct. 2009): 343-346.

Hasenjaeger worked in the coding department of the High Command of the German Armed Forces. One of his tasks was examining the security of Enigma.

Schultze-Holthus, Bernhardt. Daybreak in Iran: A Story of the German Intelligence Service. London: Staples, 1954.

Constantinides says that the author was the Abwehr man in Tabriz, Iran, during World War II. "There is little noteworthy in this book from an intelligence point of view except perhaps the lesson of the precariousness of relationships with groups whose support cannot be tangibly maintained." In the author's case, this was the pro-German Qashqai tribe.

Showell, Jak P. Mallmann. German Naval Codebreakers. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2003. Hersham, UK: Ian Allen, 2003.

According to Jonkers, AFIO WIN 11-03 (19 Mar. 2003), the author presents "high points" of the German Naval Radio Monitoring Service's "interception, decoding and intelligence activities" in World War II. The work "covers the growth of 'B-Dienst' and the integral part intelligence played in naval battles."

Kruh, Cryptologia 28.1, notes that "the book gives an account of some of the successes and failures of German codebreaking activities and how these impacted upon naval operations in European waters.... While unable to prevent the defeat of Germany, the author believes their codebreakers had a significant influence on the course of the war at sea." Bath, NIPQ 20.2, finds that "the book provides a useful appendix on the wartime organization of the German Naval Intelligence Service."

For Beard, I&NS 19.1, "the German codebreaking effort, whose successes played a crucial role in the Battle of the Atlantic in 1942 and 1943, remains a tale untold." Rielage, NWCR 59.1 (Winter 2006), finds that "the book suffers from an unfortunate organization. Attempting to avoid a chronological history of the war at sea, the author has arranged his material in a series of short vignettes, separated by ship type and area of operations. Lost in this organization is the common thread of the B-Dienst itself." Nevertheless, "there are historical gems" here; but all such gems suffer "from the second major failing of the book -- an almost complete lack of documentation."

Skorzeny, Otto. Skorzeny's Secret Missions: War Memoirs of the Most Dangerous Man in Europe. New York: Dutton, 1950.

This includes Skorzeny's telling of his commando raid to rescue Mussolini in September 1943.

Smith, Thomas T. "The Bodden Line: A Case Study in Wartime Technology." Intelligence and National Security 6, no. 2 (Apr. 1991): 447-457.

The author finds little evidence for the actual existence of the Bodden Line, a system of infrared ship detectors supposedly installed by the Germans to monitor passage through the Straits of Gibraltar. "Most accounts give the credit for detecting Bodden to Kim Philby." (fn. 2) The existence of Bodden is mentioned both by Hinsley, British Intelligence, vol. 2, pp. 719-720, and Jones, Most Secret War, p. 255. (fn. 3).

Ralph Erskine, "Eavesdropping on 'Bodden': ISOS v. the Abwehr in the Straits of Gibralter," Intelligence and National Security 12, no. 3 (Jul. 1997),110-129, argues that there is "no room for doubt that 'Bodden' used infra-red." With regard to Smith's article, Erskine notes that "most of the documents cited" in "Eavesdropping on 'Bodden'" -- "in particular, unusually extensive Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) papers -- were not available" when Smith wrote. (p. 124, fn. 1)

Staerck, Christopher, and Paul Sinnott. Luftwaffe: The Allied Intelligence Files. Dulles, VA: Brassey's, 2002.

Tate, Air & Space Power Journal 19.1 (Spring 2005), finds that "the authors have produced a fine historical document. They include both background information and ... detailed data" on various German aircraft. Their "analysis addresses [each] aircraft's war record, performance characteristics, and intelligence history -- the latter reflecting the amount of actual information we had on German aircraft during the war."

Stafford, David, ed. Flight from Reality: Rudolf Hess and His mission to Scotland, 1941. London: Pimlico, 2002.

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