The German Resistance to Hitler

A - I

Andreas-Friedrich, Ruth. Berlin Underground, 1938-1945. New York: Holt, 1947. St Paul, MN: Paragon House, 1989. [pb]

The author was a journalist who was involved the quiet, "street-level" resistance, from feeding and hiding Jews to putting up anti-Nazi posters and signs.

De Beus, J.G. Tomorrow at Dawn. New York: Norton, 1980.

According to Constantinides, this is the story of how Col. Hans Oster, a senior Abwehr officer, provided the Dutch military attaché in Berlin, Major Sas, information on Hitler's plans to attack in Western Europe after destroying Poland. When the initial warnings were not borne out, the warnings lost credibility and deception was suspected.

De Graaff, Bob. "The Stranded Baron and the Upstart at the Crossroads: Wolfgang zu Putlitz and Otto John." Intelligence and National Security 6, no. 4 (Oct. 1991): 669-700.

Because of the absence of footnotes, it is difficult to tell whether this is a carefully constructed series of assumptions, presumptions, and guesses or a factually grounded piece of arcane research. At a minimum, the article is an interesting read about two very active individuals.

Delattre, Lucas. Tr., George A. Holoch. A Spy at the Heart of the Third Reich: The Extraordinary Story of Fritz Kolbe, America’s Most Important Spy in World War II. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2005. Betraying Hitler: The Story of Fritz Kolbe, the Most Important Spy of the Second World War. London: Atlantic, 2006. New York: Grove, 2006. [pb]

Clark comment: Fritz Kolbe was Allen Dulles' source (to whom he gave the codename "George Wood.") in the German Foreign Ministry. From Publishers Weekly, Feb. 2006, (via "Delattre paints a vivid portrait of Kolbe, a romantic and a stubborn fitness buff, who seems to have become an agent simply because he was a decent man confronting indecency.... Kolbe survived the war but did not prosper in the peace, when he was regarded as a traitor in Germany."

Peake, Studies 49.3 (2005), comments that "[d]espite the irritating absence of specific source notes and an index, this is a worthwhile book on an important case." The author "conveys admiration for Kolbe's contribution and is perplexed that he did not get more credit at the time.... The book concludes with a remembrance of Kolbe by OSS and CIA veteran Peter Sichel, who helped handle Kolbe after the war. His firsthand account adds much to the image of a true German patriot."

To West, IJI&C 19.4 (Winter 2006-2007), the author has failed to place Kolbe's efforts "in their proper context." Kolbe was not the sole high-level source providing intelligence to the Allies through Switzerland. In addition, West considers the possibility that Kolbe's information also represented a serious complication to the British and their COMINT sources. However, although it is "far from the whole story," Delattre's book "is most welcome."

Rubinstein, I&NS 24.2 (Apr. 2009), finds this a "gripping and well-researched book.... Using a wide range of recently declassified sources and many interviews," the author "has rescued Kolbe from... obscurity and has vividly told a tale which deserves to be remembered." See also, Anthony Quibble, "Alias George Wood," Studies in Intelligence 10, no. 1 (Winter 1966): 69-96.

Deutsch, Harold C. The Conspiracy Against Hitler in the Twilight War. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press; 1968.

From publisher: "This is the first detailed account in English of the German anti-Nazi plot of September 1939 - May 1940, a conspiracy which involved the services of Pope Pius XII as in intermediary. Much new information is presented, and the book puts the whole story of the German resistance movement in a clearer light than has been possible before. Much of the account is based on the testimony of over fifty witnesses whom Professor Deutsch interviewed or interrogated, comprising virtually all the participants or observers who survived the period. He also had access to previously unavailable French and Belgian documents as well as to diaries and other private material."

Dippel, John Van Houten. Two Against Hitler: Stealing the Nazis' Best-Kept Secrets. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1992.

McKale, AHR, Apr. 1993, identifies Sam Woods as a commercial attaché at the U.S. embassy in Berlin and, after 1941, consul general in Zurich. Woods "passed to his government, based on information he received from a Berlin contact, the first accurate intelligence about Operation Barbarossa. He also learned from the same contact about German atomic experiments." That contact was Erwin Respondek, "a German professor of economics and financial consultant ... [who] possessed access to considerable valuable information" in Nazi Germany. For Mapother, FILS 11.4, this is a "valuable" and "well-researched" book.

Fest, Joachim. Tr., Bruce Little. Plotting Hitler's Death: The Story of the German Resistance. New York: Holt, 1996.

Powers, NYRB, 9 Jan. 1997, says that Fest has written "an authoritative new account of the events leading to July 20," 1944. The author displays a "calm and assured command of the large cast of conspirators and of the complex unfolding of events."

Foot, M.R.D. "Britischer Geheimdienste und deutscher Widerstand 1939-1945" [The British Secret Service and German Resistance]. In Großbritannien und der deutsche Widerstand 1933-1944, eds. Klaus J. Müller and David Dilks, 161-168. Paderborn and Munich: Schöningh, 1994.

Forman, James D. Code Name Valkyrie: Count Von Stauffenberg and the Plot to Kill Hitler. New York: Phillips, 1973. New York: Dell, 1976. [pb]

Von Stauffenberg was the German general who organized the ill-fated 20 July 1944 plot to assassinate Hitler.

Galante, Pierre, with Eugene Silianoff. Tr., Mark Howson. Operation Valkyrie: The German Generals' Plot Against Hitler. New York, Harper & Row, 1981. Boulder, CO: Cooper Square, 2002.

Operation Valkyrie was the German generals' plan to kill Hitler, establish a provisional government, and negotiate with the Allies for peace.

Gisevius, Hans Bernd. To the Bitter End. Tr., Richard Winston. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1947.

This is the autobiography of the Abwehr officer who served as Allen Dulles' liaison with the anti-Nazi group and was one of the few conspirators to survive the failed attempt to assassinate Hitler. He later testified at the Nuremberg Trials.

Gould, Jonathan S. "The OSS and the London 'Free Germans.'" Studies in Intelligence 46, no. 1 (2002): 11-29.

The author's father, U.S. Army Lt. Joseph Gould, recruited and trained German OSS agents for the London office of OSS' Secret Intelligence Branch (SI). Here, he tells the story of seven German trade unionists recruited and dispatched into Germany as the war was drawing to a close. The agents came from the ranks of the Free Germany Committee of Great Britain. It appears that the agents were sent to him after vetting through Soviet intelligence with the famous Sonya (Ursula Kucznski, aka Ruth Werner) as intermediary.

Hamerow, Theodore S. On the Road to the Wolf's Lair: German Resistance to Hitler. Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Luft, History 26.2, says that Hamerow's "detailed account of the genesis of the German resistance" portrays "the personalities and opinions of the resistors of 20 July 1944 with amazing nuance." The author's "interpretations are sound," but "no essentially new interpretations are offered."

Heideking, Jürgen, and Christof Mauch, eds. American Intelligence and the German Resistance to Hitler: A Documentary History. Scranton, PA: Westview, 1996.

With regard to the German-language edition (1993), Frank, WIR 13.6, comments that this compendium is based on 80 original declassified OSS documents. "The authors have done a superior job in using footnotes to identify persons and events referred to in the OSS reports.... Perhaps the most serious shortcoming ... is the authors' failure to give Donovan credit for doing what he could.... [The book's] unbiased presentation of the facts makes it a significant contribution to World War II intelligence literature."

Surveillant 4.4/5 notes that the documents included here describe the extent of U.S. knowledge of German resistance to Hitler, U.S. reactions to peace feelers from resistance groups, and OSS psychological operations to undermine German morale. Powers, NYRB, 9 Jan. 1997, finds the documents included here to be "extremely useful."

Hoffman, Peter.

1. History of the German Resistance, 1933-1945. 3d ed. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1996.

Powers, NYRB, 9 Jan. 1997, refers to this work as "authoritative and still unsurpassed."

2. Stauffenberg: A Family History, 1905-1944. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Elkes, I&NS 12.2, notes that "Hoffman's book concentrates in great detail on the individuals involved in the Resistance Movement and their motivations and intentions." See also Noel Annan's review in New York Review of Books, 6 Jun. 1996, 20-27.

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