WORLD WAR II

Germany

Canaris and the Abwehr

L - Z

Leverkuehn, Paul. German Military Intelligence. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1954. New York: Praeger, 1954.

According to Pforzheimer, Leverkuehn is a former member of the Abwehr and, thus, provides an insider's look at Admiral Canaris. Constantinides points out that, while the author headed the Abwehr station in Istanbul from 1941 to 1944, he "has left out or missed" much, and "his loyalty to his old service and ... Canaris is undiminished." See also, Jähnicke, "Lawyer, Politician, Intelligence Officer: Paul Leverkuehn in Turkey, 1915-1916 and 1941-1944," JIH 2.2 (Winter 2002).

Manville, Roger, and Heinrich Fraenkel. The Canaris Conspiracy: Secret Resistance to Hitler in the German Army. New York: McKay, 1969. [Chambers]

Mendelsohn, John, ed. Covert Warfare: Intelligence, Counter-intelligence and Military Deception During the World War II Era. 18 vols. New York: Garland, 1989.

This multivolume work consists of photo reproductions of documents from the National Archives.

Vol. 13: The Final Solution of the Abwehr. Intro., David Kahn.

From http://www.abebooks.com: This volume "includes excerpts from the interrogation reports of numerous Abwehr personnel including Walter Schellenberg, Chief of Amt VI RHSA."

Mueller, Michael. Canaris: The Life and Death of Hitler’s Spymaster. London: Chatham Publishing, 2007.

Peake, Studies 51.4 (2007), notes that the author's "description of Canaris’s life and career -- especially his role in the resistance to Hitler that cost him his life -- though interesting, adds nothing new." For Kahn, I&NS 23.2 (Apr. 2008), this is "a solid study" that rightly rejects the idea of a Canaris-Menzies meeting.

Paine, Lauran. German Military Intelligence in World War II: The Abwehr. London: Hale, 1984. New York: Stein & Day, 1984. [Chambers]

From publisher: "Reveals how treason against Hitler's government originated within the Abwehr."

Schaub, Harry Carl. "General Lahousen and the Abwehr Resistance." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 19, no. 3 (Fall 2006): 538-558.

Reviews the career of Gen. Erwin von Lahousen, "one of Canaris's principal aides" and the head of "Abwehr Department II (Sabotage and Subversion)" until Summer 1943 when he took command of a regiment on the Eastern Front. Lahousen "was the first witness for the prosecution at the Nuremberg Trial of Major War Criminals ... as the sole survivor of the members of the Abwehr resistance."

Soltikow, Michael Graf. Im Zentrum der Abwehr: Meine Jahre bei Admiral Canaris. [In the Center of the Abwehr: My Years with Admiral Canaris] Gütersloh: Prisma Verlag, 1986.

Acording to Kahn, I&NS 23.2 (Apr. 2008), the author "talks as much about his experiences with Nazi officials and generals as he does about Canaris."

Trevor-Roper, Hugh R. The Philby Affair: Espionage, Treason, and Secret Services. London: Kimber, 1968.

Clark comment: The title of this book is somewhat misleading, not for what is mentioned but for what is lacking. There are two parts to this book, one on Philby and SIS and a second on Admiral Canaris. To Pforzheimer, the former is "an excellent and perceptive essay" and the latter is "interesting." Constantinides views the part of the book on Philby as "a first-class piece of work" that includes "perceptive and sometimes brilliant observations on Philby." He notes Trevor-Roper's argument that "not one great intelligence triumph of the war was directly or exclusively due to SIS agents." Trevor-Roper also "puts Canaris's work in perspective ('as ineffective in conspiracy as in intelligence')."

Waller, John H. "The Double Life of Admiral Canaris." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 9, no. 3 (Fall 1996): 271-289.

Waller focuses on the role of Canaris in the German Resistance, and raises questions about why Himmler, who knew of Canaris' activities, allowed him to remain free as long as he did. The author also suggests that the main reason for assassinating Heydrich "was to eliminate the one man who posed a serious threat to Canaris."

Waller, John H. The Unseen War in Europe: Espionage and Conspiracy in the Second World War. New York: Random House, 1996.

For Mapother, WIR 15.5, the author has met the challenge of assembling the story of the German resisters from numerous sources in an engaging fashion. Despite its achievements, the book exhibits some proofreading problems and material has been included that bears little relevance to the main story. Nevertheless, this work is "a more sophisticated approach to history that students of the foreign news in this country would find stimulating."

Friedman, Parameters, Summer 1997, says that Waller's book is "an invaluable source of information about German resistance to Hitler and, in particular, the role of Admiral Wilhelm Canaris.... The book uses details heretofore unavailable to link new revelations to previously available data; Waller deserves credit for putting them together in a coherent text." Powers, NYRB, 9 Jan. 1997, calls the book "a good, although incomplete, introduction to the role of intelligence in the war."

According to Bates, NIPQ, Oct. 1997, this "particularly well-researched book ... reveals a great deal of new information about the terribly tangled web of intrigue on both sides -- Allied and Axis." The focus of the work is, however, on Canaris and the German resistance to Hitler. To Witmer, at http://www.thehistorynet.com/reviews, The Unseen War "is well-written, entertaining and informative, a good combination for a history book. It contains insights on the gathering and use of intelligence that could be helpful to modern policy-makers."

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