United States

P - Z

Parish, John C. "Intelligence Work at First Army Headquarters." Historical Outlook 11 (Jun. 1920): 213-217. [Petersen]

Paschall, Rod. "Deception for St. Mihiel, 1918." Intelligence and National Security 5, no. 3 (Jul. 1990): 158-175.

This article looks at the "Belfort Ruse," and concludes that it "was not much to brag about." The author follows that solid conclusion with the speculation that Col. (later Gen.) Fox Conger may have passed the ploy to his student, Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Piggott, F.S.G. "Intelligence at an Army Headquarters on the Western Front during the Last Phase of the Great War." Army Quarterly (1925): 234-244. [Petersen]

Proctor, Tammy M. Female Intelligence: Women and Espionage in the First World War. New York and London: New York University Press, 2003.

Olmsted, I&NS 19.2, calls this book a "superb history of female spies who worked for the British" in World War I. The author "ably details the many roles that women played in the intelligence bureaucracy during the war.... [And she] makes some trenchant observations about the gendered nature of intelligence." According to Peake, Studies 47.4 (2003), the author "discovered that at a time when women could not vote or hold political office, more than 6,000 had worked in a variety of sensitive intelligence-related positions.... They served as clerks and couriers, telephone and telegraph operators, code and cipher analysts, and spies behind enemy lines in Europe."

Rodman, Burton. "The Intelligent 27." Cavalry Journal 44, no. 189 (1935): 31-36. [Petersen]

Russell, Charles Edward. True Adventures of the Secret Service. New York: Burt, 1923. New York: Doubleday, Page, 1924.

Petersen: "AEF intelligence and counterintelligence."

Schwab, Stephen Irving Max. "Sabotage at Black Tom Island: A Wake-Up Call for America." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 25, no. 2 (Summer 2012): 367-391.

The discussion here covers not just the Black Tom explosion but takes a broad look at pre-World War I sabotage by German agents in the United States.

Scott, Paul R. "The Birth of the 2's: Combat Intelligence in the American Expeditionary Force." Military Intelligence 6 (Jul.-Sep. 1980): 25-26.

Smythe, Donald. "The Ruse at Belfort." Army Magazine 22, no. 6 (1972): 34-38. [Petersen]

Spence, Richard B.

1. "K.A. Jahnke and the German Sabotage Campaign in the United States and Mexico, 1914-1918." Historian 59, no. 1 (1996): 89-112. [Calder]

2. "Sidney Reilly in America, 1914-1917." Intelligence and National Security 10, no. 1 (Jan. 1995): 92-121.

This is a highly speculative -- as much about Reilly remains -- article that links Reilly with a mixed bag of skulduggery, including the explosions at Black Tom Island, NJ, and Kingsland, NJ. The author suggests that these acts of sabotage may have even been encouraged by more official British agents, to help push the United States into the war. I am sure Spence enjoyed putting this piece together, and it certainly seems to add to the already considerable reputation of Reilly. Nevertheless, it is so highly circumstantial that it must be read with extreme caution.

Trask. David F. The AEF and Coalition Warmaking, 1917-1918. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1993.

Travers, I&NS 10.4, notes that there is little emphasis on the intelligence side of the AEF's operations. "However, from time to time, Trask highlights the impact of Intelligence." The main contribution of this book is to revise "the beliefs of an earlier generation of AEF historians" by putting AEF operations into a 1918 perspective.

Tunney, Thomas Joseph, and Paul Merrick Hollister. Intro., Arthur Wood. Throttled: The Detection of the German and Anarchist Bomb Plotters in the United States. Boston: Small, Maynard, 1919.

The introduction to this book is by the former Police Commissioner, who created the Bomb Squad, headed by Tunney in August 1914.

U.S. Army Security Agency. Ed., Wayne G. Barker. The History of Codes and Ciphers in the United States During World War I. Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, 1979.

Constantinides comments that this work, prepared after World War II, draws the main outline of the cryptanalytic effort against the Germans.

U.S. Army. Signal Corps. Report of the Chief Signal Officer to the Secretary of War: 1919. Washington, DC: GPO, 1919. [Petersen]

U.S. War Department. Report of Code Compilation Section, General Headquarters, American Expeditionary Forces, December 1917-November 1918. Washington, DC: 1935.

U.S. War Department. Office of the Chief Signal Officer. Final Report of the Radio Intelligence Section, General Staff, General Headquarters, American Expeditionary Forces. Washington, DC: 1935. [Petersen]

Voska, Emanuel Victor, and William Irwin. Spy and Counterspy. New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1940. London: Harrap, 1941.

According to Constantinides, Voska ran a Czechoslovak-based counterintelligence organization in the United States prior to the U.S. entry into World War I. He placed his organization at the disposal of British intelligence, and after 1915 cooperated with the FBI as well. See also, Willert, The Road to Safety (1952).

Warner, Michael. "Protecting the Homeland the First Time Around: The Kaiser Sows Destruction." Studies in Intelligence 46, no. 1 (2002): 3-9.

"Few today remember the Black Tom explosion or the Kingsland fire, but incidents like these made a deep and lasting impression on the minds of two generations of American leaders."

Weber, Ralph E. "State Department Cryptographic Security, Herbert O. Yardley, & President Woodrow Wilson's Secret Code." In In the Name of Intelligence: Essays in Honor of Walter Pforzheimer, eds. Hayden B. Peake and Samuel Halpern, 543-596. Washington, DC: NIBC Press, 1994.

The author provides a brief, but nonetheless detailed, history of U.S. State Department codes and ciphers preparatory to surveying some of circumstances surrounding Yardley's breaking a message from Colonel House to President Wilson (revealed 15 years after the fact).

Wheeler, Douglas L. "Spy Mania and the Information War: The Hour of the Counterspy 1914/15." American Intelligence Journal 14, no. 1 (Autumn-Winter 1993): 41-45.

Wild, Max. Secret Service on the Russian Front. New York: Putnam, 1932. [Chambers]

Witcover, Jules. Sabotage at Black Tom: Imperial Germany's Secret War in America, 1914-1917. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books, 1989.

O'Toole, Encyclopedia, pp. 71-72: "At 2:08 a.m. on July 30, 1916 more than two million pounds of munitions stored on Black Tom Island in New York harbor exploded.... The explosion and the resultant fire did some $14 million in damage and killed three men and a child. The munitions ... were awaiting shipment to Russia for use against Germany in the First World War, which the United States had not yet entered. The incident was suspected to be one of sabotage by German agents. Although considerable evidence was later adduced implicating Lothar Witzke and Kurt Jahnke, both German Secret Service agents, German responsibility for the explosion was never proved."

Kitchen, I&NS 6.3, says that Witcover "gets a great deal" of his story wrong and "makes a number of tiresome errors" in his account of some of the major events during this period of time. In general, the author "has great difficulty in distinguishing between fact and fiction, conjecture and substantiated evidence." See Spence,"Sidney Reilly in America, 1914-1917," I&NS 10.1 (Jan. 1995), for a suggestion that Reilly may have been involved in the Black Tom explosion.

Wood, Eric Fisher. The Note-Book of an Intelligence Officer. New York: Century, 1917. [Chambers]

Yardley, Herbert O. "Achievements of Cipher Bureau: MI-8 during the First World War." Cryptologia 8, no. 1 (Jan. 1984): 62-74.

Yardley, Herbert O. The American Black Chamber. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1931. London: Faber & Faber, 1931. New York: Ballantine, 1981. [Reprint] Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, 1992. [Reprint, hb. & pb.] Mattituck, NY: Amereon, 1999. [Reprint]

Zimmer, George F., as told to Burke Boyce. K-7: Spies at War. New York: Appleton-Century, 1934.

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