WORLD WAR I

United States

Xenophon Kalamatiano

Xenophon Dmitrivich Kalamatiano was an American businessman in pre- and early-Revolutionary Russia. By some accounts, he agreed to report back to the Wilson administration on developments in the country as early as 1914 and, then, in late 1917 began doing intelligence work for the State Department at the behest of Consul General Maddin Summers. In less than a year of work, he built a network of approximately 30 agents, a not unimpressive feat.

Kalamatiano was arrested -- and his agent net rolled up -- by the Soviets in September 1918 in the wake of the unraveling of the so-called Lockhart Plot and Dora Kaplan's attempted assassination of Lenin. After being tried and sentenced to death, he was released in August 1921, along with other Americans being held by the Soviets, in exchange for the beginning of aid from the American Relief Administration. Upon his return to the United States, Kalamatiano was paid off and released back into civilian life. He became a language professor at his alma mater, Culver Military Academy, in Indiana. He died in November 1923.

Brown, F.C. "Xenophon Kalamatiano: America's 'Ace of Spies.'" Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 12, no. 4 (Oct. 1996): 1-3.

This is a brief, factual account. It is unfootnoted but, nonetheless, is reasonably accurate (even if the author does place Culver Academy in Illinois). If your interest in the subject is limited, this is probably the article to read.

Corson, William R., and Robert T. Crowley. The New KGB: Engine of Soviet Power. New York: Morrow, 1985.

According to Foglesong, I&NS 6.1/180/fn.2, this work provides an account of the Kalamatiano case at pages 47-64. However, Foglesong is unimpressed by the authors' presentation. He says that their "largely undocumented tale includes glaring factual errors, makes assertions which are contradicted by records of the case, and involves a great deal of creative writing."

Foglesong, David S. "Xenophon Kalamatiano: An American Spy in Revolutionary Russia?" Intelligence and National Security 6, no. 1 (Jan. 1991): 154-195.

See the author's extensive references to Russian-language (fn. 1) and English-language accounts (fn. 2) of the Kalamatiano case. Foglesong also discusses Kalamatiano in his America's War Against Bolshevism: United States Intervention in the Russian Civil War, 1917-1920 (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 114-123.

Mahoney, Harry Thayer. "The Saga of Xenophon Dmitrivich Kalamatiano." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 8, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 179-201.

Spence, Richard B. "The Tragic Fate of Kalamatiano: America's Man in Moscow." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 12, no. 3 (Fall 1999): 346-374.

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