World War I

Reilly & Lockhart


Included here:

1. Sidney Reilly

2. Robert Bruce Lockhart

1. Sidney Reilly

Ainsworth, John. "Sidney Reilly's Reports from South Russia, December 1918-March 1919." Europe-Asia Studies 50, no. 8 (1998): 1447-1470.

Reilly was sent by MI6 head Mansfield Smith-Cumming "to gather information on the situation in South Russia," which was then "home to a variety of anti-Bolshevik elements.... Reaction at the Foreign Office to Reilly's reports on South Russia was generally quite favourable." However, the author sees Reilly displaying "the characteristics of a zealous advocate of the Volunteers [Denikin's Volunteer Army] and their cause, rather than a disinterested intelligence agent reporting conscientiously on the state of affairs that he found in South Russia."

Cook, Andrew. On His Majesty's Secret Service: Sidney Reilly ST1. Stroud, UK, and Charleston, SC: Tempus, 2002. Ace of Spies: The True Story of Sidney Reilly. 2d ed. Sutton, UK: Tempus, 2004.

Peake, Studies 46.4, says that "Cook's account is both scholarly and fascinating reading. It qualifies as the definitive version of the life of this famous agent who was executed by the Soviets and buried in the courtyard of Lubyanka prison." For Swain, I&NS 18.3, "[t]his is almost the definitive account" of Reilly's career, "almost, but not quite. It tells the reader everything that Britain's master spy was not, but not everything that he was."

Troy, IJI&C 17.3, notes that the author has "striven to correct Reilly's record," by researching and documenting "much primary material." The book "reads persuasively and smoothly." Nonetheless, it does not answer the question of whether Reilly's life (or death) really mattered.

Kettle, Michael. Sidney Reilly: The True Story. New York: St. Martin's, 1983. London: Corgi, 1983. [pb]

Lockhart, Robin Bruce.

Surveillant 2.6 calls Ace of Spies a "highly embellished account." According to Constantinides, the biography "adds very little to what was already known.... It is a popular account that lacks documentation.... [H]e included stories about Reilly that can only be described as tall."

2. Reilly: The First Man. New York: Penguin Paperbacks, 1987.

Reilly, Pepita. The Adventures of Sidney Reilly, Britain's Master Spy. London: Mathews & Marrot, 1931. Britain's Master Spy: The Adventures of Sidney Reilly. New York: Harper, 1933.

Spence, Richard B.

1. "Sidney Reilly in America, 1914-1917." Intelligence and National Security 10, no. 1 (Jan. 1995): 92-121.

2. "Sidney Reilly's Lubianka 'Diary' 30 October to 4 November 1925." Revolutionary Russia 8, no. 2 (1995): 179-194. [Calder]

3. "The Terrorist and the Master Spy: The Political Partnership of Boris Savinkov and Sidney Reilly, 1918-1925." Revolutionary Russia 4, no. 1 (Jun. 1991): 111-131.

4. Trust No One: The Secret World of Sidney Reilly. Los Angeles, CA: Feral House, 2003.

For Troy, IJI&C 17.3, this is a "comprehensive and perhaps overly detailed biography." Although "rich in many ways," it "is not easy to get through" and "contains many factual errors." Mandelbaum, AFIO WIN 14-03 (9 Apr. 2003), refers to the author's "exhaustive research" which provides "a density of detail that one seldom encounters in an espionage biography." However, readers "seeking more drama and less detail may find" this work "a rather slow-going read."

Peake, Studies 47.3, finds "several instances where Prof. Spence adds details to the Reilly history not mentioned by others....  But overall, the 500 pages of this book do more to show how little is reliably known about Reilly than how much.... [D]espite an impressive display of names, dates, and events involving Reilly, the outcome is such a bewildering mix of lies and half truths that even Prof. Spence is forced to conclude with an admission that Reilly’s 'entrance and exit from this world are equally shrouded in mystery.'  The same can be said of the time in between."

van der Rhoer, Edward. Master Spy: A True Story of Allied Espionage in Bolshevik Russia. New York: Scribner's, 1981.

2. Robert Bruce Lockhart

Trapped in a provocation operation by the Cheka in 1918, Lockhart was soon exchanged for Maxim Litvinov, who had been arrested by the British.

Brook-Shepard, Gordon. Iron Maze: The Western Secret Services and the Bolsheviks. London: Macmillan; 1998.

A retelling, with new material, of the Lockhart plot and associated events.

Debo, Richard K. "Lockhart Plot or Dzerzhinski Plot." Journal of Modern History 43, no. 3 (1971): 413-439.

Lockhart, Robert H. Bruce [Sir]. Memoirs of a British Agent. London: Penguin, 1930. 2d ed. London: 1934. British Agent. New York: Putnam's, 1933. 2d ed. Garden City, NY: Garden City Publishing, 1936. Basingstoke, UK: Papermac, 1985. [pb] Memoirs of a British Agent: Being an Account of the Author's Early Life in Many Lands and of His Official Mission to Moscow in 1918. London: Macmillan, 1974.

Long, John W. "Plot and Counter-plot in Revolutionary Russia: Chronicling the Bruce Lockhart Conspiracy, 1918." Intelligence and National Security 10, no. 1 (Jan. 1995): 122-143.

The author's conclusion: "Thus, with the evidence now at hand, the famous 'Lockhart Plot' can at last be seen for what it was: on the one hand, a real, if pitiful, anti-Soviet conspiracy concocted (or perhaps deliberately provoked) by the megalomaniacal Sidney Reilly in likely collusion with the eager but inexperienced Bruce Lockhart, and, on the other, a superb example of police provocation brilliantly conceived and expertly executed by the crafty agents of the Cheka."

Siegel, Jennifer. "British Intelligence on the Russian Revolution and Civil War--A Breach at the Source." Intelligence and National Security 10, no. 3 (Jul. 1995): 468-485.

Swain, Geoffrey. "'An Interesting and Plausible Proposal': Bruce Lockhart, Sidney Reilly and the Latvian Riflemen, Russia 1918." Intelligence and National Security 14, no. 3 (Autumn 1999): 81-102.

Swain finds that, within the context of the time, "the British approach to the Latvians in August 1918 made perfect sense.... [A]nd, if Reilly had concentrated on his initial brief,... things might still have turned out differently."

Young, Kenneth, ed. The Diaries of Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart. Volume 1: 1915-1938 London: Macmillan, 1973.

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