World War I


S - Z

Sanders, Michael L., and Philip M. Taylor. British Propaganda during the First World War, 1914-1918. London: Macmillan, 1982. New York: Crane, Russak, 1983. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 1983. [pb]

Santoni, Alberto. "The First Ultra Secret: The British Cryptanalysis in the Naval Operations of the First World War." Revue internationale d'histoire militaire 63 (Oct. 1985): 99-110. [Sexton]

Seligmann, Matthew S.

1. Spies in Uniform: British Military and Naval Intelligence on the Eve of the First World War. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Stevenson, I&NS 21.6 (Dec. 2006), comments that "[t]his book fills a very significant gap in our knowledge of British policy towards Germany" before World War I. The focus is on "the military and naval attachés in Berlin between 1900 and 1914." The author's "lucidly constructed presentation is rich in detail." For Boghardt, DIJ 16.1 (2007), this is "a fine study of a hitherto underappreciated intelligence provider to the British government.... [It] is highly recommended to anyone interested in Anglo-German relations, pre-World War I intelligence, and the role of service attachés in the intelligence gathering process."

2. "A View From Berlin: Colonel Frederick Trench and the Development of British Perceptions of German Aggressive Intent, 1906–1910." Journal of Strategic Studies 23, no. 2 (2000).

From abstract: Trench was British military attaché in Berlin from 1906 to 1910. "At this time, the British Army ... had to rely heavily on the reports of military attachés for information about their continental rivals. Trench, who believed that Germany planned to wage war against Britain..., was the main source of data on the German Army.... [T]his essay posits that Trench's views contributed to the growing British perception of a German threat, a perception that did much to influence British strategic planning in this period."

3. ed. Naval Intelligence from Germany: The Reports of the British Naval Attachés in Berlin, 1906-1914. Navy Records Society no. 152. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007.

According to Bönker, H-Soz-u-Kult, H-Net Reviews [http://www.h-net.org], Jun. 2008, there are 222 of these reports included in this "extremely useful collection of primary documents meant to provide insight into British thinking about Germany and its navy during the Anglo-German naval arms race before World War I."

Sellers, Leonard. Shot In the Tower: The Story of the Spies Executed in the Tower of London during the First World War. Barnsley, UK: Pen and Sword Books, 1997.

From publisher: The author tells "the remarkable, but somehow pathetic, stories of the eleven foreign agents who were caught and subsequently shot in the Tower for espionage."

Sharp, Alan. "Some Relevant Historians -- The Political Intelligence Department of the Foreign Office, 1918-1920." Australian Journal of Politics & History 34 (1988): 358-368.

According to the Royal Historical Society Database, names mentioned include Lewis Namier, Arnold Toynbee, Alfred Zimmerman, and George Peabody Gooch.

Silber, Jules. The Invisible Weapons. London: Hutchinson, 1932.

Silver, Patricia. "A Dubliner in British Military Intelligence.: History Ireland 22, no. 4 (2014): 336-39.

World War I, the Royal Munster Fusiliers, and J.A.F. Cuffe.

Smith, Michael. "The Government Code and Cypher School and the First World War." In Action This Day: Bletchley Park from the Breaking of the Enigma Code to the Birth of the Modern Computer, eds. Ralph Erskine and Michael Smith, 15-40, 459-467. London and New York: Bantam, 2001.

Smith, Michael. "How MI5's Major K Unmasked German 'Birdwatchers.'" Telegraph (London), 18 Nov. 1997. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

Files placed in the Public Record Office indicate that Vernon Kell's nascent MI5 enjoyed considerable success in identifying and containing German agents before and during World War I.

Spence, Richard B.

1. "Interrupted Journey: British Intelligence and the Arrest of Leon Trotskii, April 1917." Revolutionary Russia 13, no. 1 (Jun. 2000): 1-28.

2. "Secret Agent 666: Aleister Crowley and British Intelligence in America, 1914-1918." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 13, no. 3 (Fall 2000): 359-371.

Despite Crowley's virulent anti-British/anti-Allied writings in U.S. publications during World War I, materials from the archives of the U.S. Army Military Intelligence Division convince the author that Crowley was working for British intelligence.

Taylor, Philip M. "The Foreign Office and British Propaganda during the First World War." Historical Journal 23, no. 4 (Dec. 1980): 875-898.

Calder: "A detailed discussion of organizational politics associated with the Foreign Office role in the propaganda administration."

Tuohy, Ferdinand. The Secret Corps: A Tale of "Intelligence" on All Fronts. London: Murray, 1920. [Chambers]

Warman, Roberta M. "The Erosion of Foreign Office Influence in the Making of Foreign Policy, 1916-1918." Historical Journal 15, no. 1 (Mar. 1972): 133-159.

Calder notes that the article "[i]ncludes discussion of the role of the Military Intelligence Division and the Political Intelligence Bureau."

West, Nigel [Rupert Allason], ed. MI5 in the Great War. London: Backbite Publishing, 2014.

According to Peake, Studies 58.4 (Dec. 2015), this work "summarizes the original 10 volume official assessment of the Security Service's WW I operations.... The original study was written by Dr. Lucy E. Farrer at the request of then MI5 Director-General Colonel Vernon Kell.... In editing Farrer's work, West has selected many of Farrer's interesting accounts.... [However, this work] suffers a major deficiency: no index.... But [it] does reveal the magnitude of MI5 WW I security operations like no other source."

Westwood, James T. [LTCDR/USN] "Electronic Warfare and Signals Intelligence at the Outset of World War I." Cryptologic Spectrum 11, no. 2 (Spring 1981): 24-25. [https://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/cryptologic_spectrum/electronic_warfare.pdf]

When the British cut the five German underwater cables running under the English Channel, they forced the Germans to communicate with the rest of world via radio broadcasts. This, in turn, even if unintentionally, made possible the successes of the Admiralty's Room 40.

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