UNITED KINGDOM

World War I

General

F - G

Felstead, Sidney T. German Spies at Bay: Being an Actual Record of the German Espionage in Great Britain During the Years 1914-1918, Compiled from Official Sources. London: Hutchinson, 1920. New York: Brentano's, 1920.

Ferris, John Robert.

1. "'Airbandit': C3I and Strategic Air Defence during the First Battle of Britain, 1915-1918." In Strategy and Intelligence: British Policy during the First World War, eds. Michael Dockrill and David French, 23-66. London: Hambledon, 1995.

2. "'FORTITUDE' in Context: The Evolution of British Military Deception in Two World Wars, 1914-1945." In Paradoxes of Strategic Intelligence: Essays in Honor of Michael I. Handel, eds. Richard K. Betts and Thomas G. Mahnken, 117-165. London: Frank Cass, 2003.

3. "The British Army and Signals Intelligence in the Field during the First World War." Intelligence and National Security 3, no. 4 (Oct. 1988), 23-48.

4. ed. The British Army and Signals Intelligence during the First World War. London: Army Records Society, 1992. Wolfeboro Falls, NH: Alan Sutton Publishing, 1992.

Fitzgerald, Penelope. The Knox Brothers. New York: Coward, McCann, & Geoghegan, 1977. Rev. ed. Washington, DC: Counterpoint, 2000.

According to Kruh, Cryptologia 25.2, this is the biography of the author's father (Edmund) and his three brothers. One of the brothers was Dillwyn "Dilly" Knox who played a major role as a British codebreaker in World War I (Room 40), during the interwar years (Foreign Office) and in World War II (Bletchley Park). Sexton terms this an "[o]utstanding biography of the four Knox brothers." The author views Dillwyn Knox as "one of the most important cryptanalysts of all time."

Freeman, Peter. "MI1(b) and the Origins of British Diplomatic Cryptanalysis." Intelligence and National Security 22, no. 2 (Apr. 2007): 206-228.

The author "outlines the relevant parts of the War Office's intelligence staff, describes the development of MI1(b)'s work on diplomatic targets..., and details the merger in 1919" of MI1(b) and Room 40 "into the Government Code & Cypher School (GC&CS) under the Admiralty, and its move in 1921/22 to its current position under the Foreign Secretary." [footnotes omitted]

French, David.

1. "Failures of Intelligence: The Retreat to the Hindenburg Line and the March 1918 Offensive." In Strategy and Intelligence: British Policy during the First World War, eds. Michael Lawrence Dockrill and David French, 67-95. London and Rio Grande, OH: Hambledon, 1996.

2. "Sir John French's Secret Service on the Western Front, 1914-15." Journal of Strategic Studies 7, no. 4 (1984): 423-440.

3. "Spy Fever In Britain 1900-1915." Historical Journal 21 (1978): 355-370.

4. "Watching the Allies: British Intelligence and the French Mutinies of 1917." Intelligence and National Security 6, no. 3 (Jul. 1991): 573-592.

Gannon, Paul. Inside Room 40: The Codebreakers of World War I. Hersham, UK: Ian Allen, 2010.

Christensen, Cryptologia 35.3 (Jul. 2011), says this work "is not dramatically different from what we have read before, but it does present a more comprehensive view of World War I British signals intelligence."

Gill, David W.J. "Research Note: Harry Pirie-Gordon: Historical Research, Journalism and Intelligence Gathering in the Eastern Mediterranean (1908-18)." Intelligence and National Security 21, no. 6 (Dec. 2006): 1045-1059.

"Pirie-Gordon was part of the [British] intelligence community in both world wars. He was certainly involved by the end of 1914 when he was working in Cairo." However, the exact timing of his "transition from academic studies and journalism to intelligence work remains unclear."

Gill, E.W.B. War, Wireless and Wangles. Oxford: 1934.

Noting that Gill worked in MI1e in the United Kingdom and the Middle East during World War I, Ferris, I&NS 3.4/46/fn.9, says that Gill's "account of any issue in which he was personally involved is accurate."

Goodman, Michael S. "First World War Spooks." BBC History Magazine 10, no. 12 (Dec. 2009), 39-44.

A special sub-committee of the Committee of Imperial Defence concluded by mid-1909 that Britain needed a secret service to counter what was perceived as an aggressive Germany. In October 1909, the two branches of the Secret Service Bureau (SSB) began operation. The SSB's foreign branch was headed by Sir Mansfield Cumming (C) and the domestic intelligence branch by Vernon Kell (K). "Perhaps the greatest example of their successes [in World War I] is the fact that they, and their agencies, survived."

Grant, Robert M.

1. U-Boat Hunters: Codebreakers, Divers and the Defeat of the U-Boats, 1914-1918. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2003.

Bath, NIPQ 20.3, finds that "there is a wealth of information on the cryptographic history of the First World War" in this book. The author "is recognized as a leading expert" on the U-boat war of 1914-1918, and this work "expands upon and updates previous works." For Kruh, Cryptologia 30.2 (Apr. 2006), this is a "groundbreaking book." An "incredible story emerges" from the author's "digging through the radio interception records, telegrams, and the records of the Admiralty Salvage Department."

2. U-Boat Intelligence, 1914-1918. London: Putnam, 1969. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1969.

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