UNITED KINGDOM

World War I

General

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Andrew, Christopher. "The Mobilization of British Intelligence in the Two World Wars." In Mobilization for Total War: The Canadian, American and British Experience 1914-1918, 1939-1945, ed. N.F. Dreiszinger, 87-101. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfried Laurier University Press, 1981.

Aston, George G. [Sir] Secret Service. London: Faber & Faber, 1930. New York: Cosmopolitan, 1930.

Beach, Jim.

1. "De L'art de la reconnaissance au Livre jaune: le renseignement militaire britannique, 1902-1915." Guerres Mondiales et Conflits Contemporains 55, no. 232 (2008): 105-127.

2. "British Intelligence and German Tanks, 1916-1918." War in History 14, no. 4 (2007): 454-475.

3. "'Intelligent Civilians in Uniform': The British Expeditionary Force's Intelligence Corps Officers, 1914–1918." War & Society 27, no. 1 (2008): 1-22.

4. "Origins of the Special Intelligence Relationship? Anglo-American Intelligence Co-operation on the Western Front, 1917-18." Intelligence and National Security 22, no. 2 (Apr. 2007): 229-249.

The author suggests that the World War I "interaction between the intelligence staffs of the British and American Expeditionary Forces was a significant precursor to the emergence of the later relationship."

Beesly, Patrick. Room 40: British Naval Intelligence, 1914-18. London/New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1982.

Bley, Wulf [pseud. W.H. Hartwig]. "Lord Kitchenes Ende" [Lord Kitchener's End]. In Weltkriegsspionage [World War Espionage], ed. [Maj. Gen.] Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, 486-489. Munich: Justin Moser, 1931.

H. Roewer: "A not very plausible story about the death of Lord Kitchener [in 1916] as the work of the British secret service."

Boghardt, Thomas.

1. "A German Spy? New Evidence on Baron Louis von Horst." Journal of Intelligence History 1, no. 2 (Winter 2001). [http://www.intelligence-history.org/jih/previous. html]

From abstract: In August 1914, Scotland Yard detectives "apprehended a German-American businessman, Baron Louis von Horst. Charged with espionage on behalf of the German government, von Horst was detained in various detention camps..., dispossessed, and expelled from Britain as an 'undesirable alien' in 1919.... [N]ew documentary evidence proves ... that Sir Basil Thomson, director of the Special Branch, cleverly and ruthlessly used the baron as a tool to advance his own career. Von Horst, losing his wealth and health in the course of his almost 5-year detention, was unjustly branded a 'German spy.'"

2. Spies of the Kaiser: German Covert Operations in Great Britain during the First World War. London: Palgrave in conjunction with St. Anthony's College, Oxford, 2004.

Watt, I&NS 20.3 (Sep 2005), calls this work "a perfectly acceptable if limited study of German naval intelligence activities in Britain before and after" World War I. The author has put together "a coherent and credible picture from the surviving archives in both Britain and Germany." However, "there is nothing about the German army intelligence organization." Boghardt, I&NS 21.3 (Jun. 2006), takes exception to some of Watt's comments and, specifically, cites Walter Nicolai as stating that "German prewar espionage in Britain was the exclusive preserve of naval intelligence."

According to Peake, Studies 49.3 (2005), the author is the first to write about the German Admiralty's naval intelligence department (designated “N” and formed in 1901). When war came, "all the important agents were identified and arrested or neutralized." In the end, the unit "never posed a serious threat to British security." This book "provides summaries of the major wartime cases of 'N' espionage operations in Great Britain and discusses several that involved agents operating in the United States." Rielage, NIPQ 22.4 (Sep. 2006), sees Spies of the Kaiser as "a fascinating and exceptionally well-documented work."

Brownrigg, Douglas [Admiral Sir]. Indiscretions of the Naval Censor. New York: Doran, 1920. London: Cassell, 1920.

Bywater, Hector C., and H.C. Ferraby. Strange Intelligence: Memoirs of Naval Secret Service. London: Constable, 1931. New York: Richard R. Smith, 1931.

Carl, Ernst. One against England: The Death of Lord Kitchener and the Plot against the British Fleet. New York: Dutton, 1935. [Probably same as: Carl, Ernst. Einer gegen England: Erlebnisse und Enthüllungen des deutschen "Meisterspions", 1914-1918 [One against England: Experiences and Revelations of a German "Master-Spy", 1914-1918]. Reutlingen: [?], 1934.]

Royal Historical Society Darabase note: "With special reference to the sinking of the 'Hampshire'" -- HMS Hampshire was sunk on 5 June 1916; among the lives lost was that of British Commander-in-Chief Lord Kitchener who was on a mission to Russia.

Cockerill, George [Sir]. What Fools We Were. London: Hutchinson, 1944.

Comber, Leon. "The Singapore Mutiny (1915) and the Genesis of Political Intelligence in Singapore." Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 4 (Aug. 2009): 529-541.

From abstract: "The establishment of an intelligence bureau in Singapore came about as a direct result of the Singapore [Sepoy] Mutiny ..., and in the following year the newly-established bureau was renamed the Criminal Intelligence Department and absorbed into the Straits Settlement Police."

Crowley, Aleister. The Confessions of Aleister Crowley: An Autobiography. New York: Hill and Wang, 1969.

See Richard B. Spence, "Secret Agent 666: Aleister Crowly and British Intelligence in America, 1914-1918," International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 13, no. 3 (Fall 2000): 359-371, for a discussion of Crowley's role as a British agent.

Dockrill, Michael Lawrence.

1. "The Foreign Office Political Intelligence Department and Germany in 1918." In Strategy and Intelligence: British Policy during the First World War, eds. Michael Lawrence Dockrill and David French, 160-183. London and Rio Grande, OH: Hambledon, 1996.

2. and David French, eds. Strategy and Intelligence: British Policy during the First World War. London and Rio Grande, OH: Hambledon, 1996.

Egerton, George. "Diplomacy, Scandal, and Military Intelligence: The Craufurd-Stuart Affair and Anglo-American Relations, 1918-20." Intelligence and National Security 2, no. 4 (Oct. 1987): 110-134.

The author argues that this diplomatic incident played "a major role in the seminal events which transpired in Anglo-American relations and Washington politics in 1919." See also, Maechling, "Scandal in Wartime Washington: The Craufurd-Stuart Affair of 1918." IJI&C 4.3 (Fall 1990): 357-370.

Everitt, Nicholas. British Secret Service during the Great War. London: Hutchinson, 1920. [http://archive.org/details/britishsecretser00everuoft] Charleston, SC: BiblioBazaar, 2010.

Ewing, Alfred W.

1. The Man of Room 40: The Life of Sir Alfred Ewing. London: Hutchinson, 1939.

2. "Some Special War Work, Part 1. With an Introduction by David Kahn." Cryptologia 4, no. 4 (Oct. 1980): 193-203; and "Some Special War Work, Part 2." Cryptologia 5, no. 1 (Jan. 1981): 33-39.

These articles deal with Sir Alfred's work in Room 40 and the solution of the German diplomatic ciphers in World War I.

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