WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE?

A - G

Allen, George W. “The Professionalization of Intelligence.” Studies in Intelligence 26, no. 1 (Spring 1985): 23-31. “The Professionalization of Intelligence.” In Strategic Intelligence: Theory and Application, 2d ed., eds. Douglas H. Dearth and R. Thomas Goodden, 33-40. Washington, DC: Joint Military Intelligence Training Center, 1995.

"Sherman Kent and others hailed the creation of the Central Intelligence Agency as symbolizing the maturing of intelligence as a profession. Yet, almost thirty-five years later, we find many of those engaged in the vocation of intelligence ignoring or neglecting the implications of its professionalization."

Berkowitz, Bruce. "Democracies and Their Spies." Hoover Digest 2003, no. 1 (30 Jan. 2003). [http://www.hoover.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/8004]

The author asks the question, "Are secret intelligence operations compatible with democracy?" He finds that: "Intelligence policies are not fundamentally different from other kinds of policies, and intelligence operations are not inherently different from other kinds of operations democracies carry out." In addition, "[t]he current oversight system for U.S. intelligence ... provide[s] an approach for reconciling democracy and secrecy and, thus, intelligence."

Berkowitz, Bruce D., and Allan E. Goodman. Strategic Intelligence for American National Security. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989. [pb] 3d ed., 1991.

Kozak, APSR 84.3, argues that Berkowitz and Goodman provide "a very systematic, thorough, authoritative survey that applies solid political science, policy science, and political theory to the important study of the gathering, processing, and utilizing of U.S. intelligence." Their work is "methodologically sophisticated and additive," and "raises some of the profound questions posed by intelligence activities in a free society.... A number of normative prescriptions for better practicing the 'craft of intelligence' ... seem right on target."

According to Cline, PSQ 104.4, this work "provides a competent description of the process of intelligence collection and analysis and presents a rapid overview of the issues that are still viewed as controversial." One criticism that can be made is that the authors did not address the interface between the intelligence process and the national policymakers. Cline, concludes, however, that the book "is brief, readable, and crisply efficient in providing a good starting point of reference of the basic elements of the process of intelligence."

Surveillant 1.5 notes that Berkowitz and Goodman are "[c]ritical of many Washington sacred cows" and are seeking "to establish terms for a public debate on U.S. intelligence policy and planning in years ahead."

For Jervis, IJI&C 3.3, the book offers an "informative overview of American intelligence processes and problems." However, it "can be faulted for not fully addressing emerging trends," such as "the growing role of Congress ... as a consumer of intelligence." Johnson, I&NS 5.3, sees the book as "the best primer available on the core mission of the intelligence community," but faults the authors for "underestimat[ing] the attractiveness and implications of covert action." Lowenthal points out that the third edition "has an afterword reflecting on the challenges facing intelligence in the aftermath of the Cold War."

Bimfort, Martin T. "A Definition of Intelligence." Studies in Intelligence 2, no. 4 (Fall 1958): 75-78.

The author proposes the following: "Intelligence is the collecting and processing of that information about foreign countries and their agents which is needed by a government for its foreign policy and national security, the conduct of non-attributable activities abroad to facilitate the implementation of foreign policy, and the protection of both process and product, as well as persons and organizations concerned with these, against unauthorized disclosure."

Bozeman, Adda B. Strategic Intelligence and Statecraft: Selected Essays. Washington, DC: Brassey's, 1992.

See C. Adamitis ["Addi"] Keim, "The Missing Link: Adda Bozeman on U.S. Strategic Intelligence," Intelligencer 13, no. 2 (Winter-Spring 2003): 37-44.

Clark comment: This is a collection of eight intellectual and intelligent essays: "International Order in a Multicultural World"; "War and the Clash of Ideas"; "Covert Action and Foreign Policy in World Politics"; "Traditions of Political Warfare and Low-Intensity Conflict in Totalitarian Russia and China: A Comparative Study of Continuity and Change"; "Statecraft and Intelligence in the Non-Western World"; "Knowledge and Method in Comparative Intelligence Studies of Non-Western Societies"; "American Policy and the Illusion of Congruent Values"; and "Strategic Intelligence in Cold Wars of Ideas."

Allen, DIJ 1.2, comments that this is a "remarkable" and "fascinating book," while FILS 11.6 finds it "well worth reading." Surveillant 2.6 calls the book "illuminating.... Bozeman, a professor at Sarah Lawrence College, explains how strategic intelligence is the key to successful statecraft in foreign affairs." Warren, Intelligencer 14.2 (Winter-Spring 2005), says that this book "is worth reading by anyone who wants a different perspective on the relationship of Intelligence to American foreign policy."

Economist, 16 Jan. 1993, says Bozeman recognizes that "intelligence and the making of foreign policy have to be interwoven with each other.... This is no ordinary book of reprinted essays: it deserves to be closely studied, in all places where high policy is made." According to a MI 20.2 reviewer, the "most profound assertion the author makes is that the West does not understand the value systems of other cultures.... This is a wonderful book for students of political science, political intelligence, and policy formation."

Cline, Ray S. "Intelligence." In Encyclopedia of the American Military, 1297-1338. New York: Scribner's, 1994.

Davies, Philip H.J. "Ideas of Intelligence: Divergent Concepts and National Institutions." Harvard International Review 24, no. 3 (Fall 2002): 62-66.

The author includes the substantive elements of intelligence as laid out by Sherman Kent. The focus is on the differences between the British and U.S. concepts of intelligence.

Dulles, Allen. The Craft of Intelligence. New York: Harper & Row, 1963. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1963. New York: Signet Books, 1965. [pb] Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1977. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1985. Guilford, CT: Lyons Press, 2006.

Clark comment: This is one of the classic pieces of intelligence literature. Not everyone agrees with every Dulles statement about intelligence, but the book holds up remarkably well decades after it was published in a time with vastly different views about intelligence.

Frank G. Wisner, Studies 8.1 (Winter 1964), sees this as "a most valuable book, one which ... should be read ... by all persons having a serious professional interest in the subject of intelligence, and hopefully also by a wide segment of the general public." Nevertheless, there is an "imbalance" in the work "in favor of intelligence tradecraft ... and to the disadvantage of certain of the most important functions and problems of the research and analysis and estimative process." Wisner shares a number of additional thoughts on the practice of intelligence and counterintelligence, which are well worth reading apart from their role in this review article.

According to Pforzheimer, Dulles touches on "some of the earlier history of intelligence, examines many aspects of intelligence requirements, collection, and production, describes the Communist intelligence services, and explores the uses of intelligence." Petersen views The Craft of Intelligence as "[o]bservations based on the career experience of a foremost US practitioner who served as DCI 1953-1961. The 1965 paperback edition ... includes additional material."

To Constantinides, the book is "a veritable storehouse on the philosophy of intelligence and on Dulles's general approach to it." Beyond that, however, "this work is a realistic picture of intelligence." Nevertheless, later information has dated some of his accounts, such as those of Cicero and the Berlin Tunnel. After noting that the 2006 edition is the same as the revised 1965 edition, Peake, Studies 50.4 (2006), comments that "the book is an easy read and excellent introduction to the profession, as it deals with both the history and functional aspects of the topic."

For a brief look at some of Dulles' ideas, see Allen Dulles, "The Craft of Intelligence," Harper's 226 (Apr. 1963): 128-174.

Felix, Christopher [James McCargar]. A Short Course in the Secret War. New York: Dutton, 1963. The Spy and His Masters: A Short Course in the Secret War. London: Secker & Warburg, 1963. 2d ed. New York: Dell, 1988. [pb] With new intro. Lanham, MD: Madison via University Press of America, 1992.

"James G. McCargar, 86, an author, diplomat and spy whose 1963 book on the craft of covert operations continues to be recommended by the U.S. intelligence community, died" on 30 May 2007. Patricia Sullivan, "James G. McCargar -- Author, Spy," Washington Post, 13 Jun. 2007, B6.

To Constantinides, Short Course is an "outstanding book on intelligence tradecraft and practice.... The second part [of the book] recounts the author's experiences in Hungary in 1946-1947. His description of Communist security, takeover, and other techniques is especially important." Pforzheimer notes that the book covers "various aspects of covert action, clandestine collection, and intelligence tradecraft. The first half ... is recommended."

Licklider, Intelligencer 7.1, says that one reason for this book's "longevity is that it explains the basic concepts of intelligence better than any other. Clear distinctions between intelligence and espionage, knowing and secret knowing, and counterintelligence and security" make it possible "to better understand the way intelligence works in any environment." For MacFarland, CIRA Newsletter 26.1, Short Course "may be the best of a small number of treatises that discuss the process and philosophy of the intelligence business.... Felix's writing is concise, witty and engaging, and the book is filled with entertaining anecdotes."

Foot, M.R.D. "What Use Are Secret Services?" In In the Name of Intelligence: Essays in Honor of Walter Pforzheimer, eds. Hayden B. Peake and Samuel Halpern, 277-282. Washington, DC: NIBC Press, 1994.

Furst, Alan. "Autumn Deceptions." Intelligence Quarterly 2, no. 3 (1986): 4-5.

Petersen: "Application of intelligence deception precepts in professional football."

 

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