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World War II

Ultra

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Spiller, Roger J. "Assessing Ultra." Military Review 59 (Aug. 1979): 13-23.

http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usamhi/RefBibs/intell/ ww2/ultra.htm: "Cautionary note about Ultra's role" in operations and revising WWII history.

Stengers, J. "Enigma, the French, the Poles and the British, 1931-1940." In The Missing Dimension: Governments and Intelligence Communities in the Twentieth Century, eds. Christopher Andrew and David Dilks, 126-137. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1984.

Stripp, Alan.

Alan Stripp died on 18 February 2009 at the age of 84. See Telegraph (London), 20 Mar. 2009.

1. "Breaking Japanese Codes." Intelligence and National Security 2, no. 4 (Oct. 1987): 135-150.

The author describes his work on Japanese codes at Bletchley Park and in New Delhi. He later worked on Farsi at Abbottabad, and passed briefly through Singapore. At the end of the article, Stripp illustrates "a typical Japanese code system."

2.. Codebreaker in the Far East. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. [pb] 2002.

McGinnis, Cryptolog, Summer 1996, notes that this work includes the author's account of how he was recruited into the Comint business, learned the Japanese language, worked at Bletchley Park, and then worked at various sites in the Far East. "This is not the world's greatest book about Comint. A newcomer might find some of the anecdotal material interesting."

According to Sexton, the author "provides an overview of the ways in which ULTRA contributed to Allied operations in Burma and discusses the intricacies of breaking Japanese codes and ciphers." Kruh, Cryptologia 28.1, calls this "a fascinating first-hand account by a codebreaker and an important contribution to our understanding of British signals intelligence and training." See also Allen, I&NS 5.3, for a lengthy look at some of the details in Stripp's book, as well as a brief reply from Stripp.

Sugarman, Martin. "Breaking the Codes: Jewish Personnel at Bletchley Park." Jewish Historical Studies 40 (2005): 197-246.

Stubbington, John. Bletchley Park Air Section Signals Intelligence Support to RAF Bomber Command: Combined Bombing Offensive 1943-1945, with the 8th US Army Air Force: Including Y-Service Special Intelligence and No. 100 (Bomber Support) Group Radio Countermeasures. Alton, Hampshire: Minerva Associates, 2007.

Tamkin, Nicholas. "Diplomatic Sigint and the British Official Mind during the Second World War: Soviet Claims on Turkey, 1940-45." Intelligence and National Security 23, no. 6 (Dec. 2008): 749-766.

"Decrypts that were of urgent importance to the war effort, or of immediate use to British diplomatists, were assimilated, but material of potential long-term significance was effectively lost because of the organizational limitations of the wartime" Foreign Office.

Taunt, Derek. "Hut 6 from the Inside." In Action This Day: Bletchley Park from the Breaking of the Enigma Code to the Birth of the Modern Computer, eds. Ralph Erskine and Michael Smith, 77-93, 473. London and New York: Bantam, 2001.

Tent, James Foster. E-Boat Alert: Defending the Normandy Invasion Fleet. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1996.

Foot, I&NS 12.2, sees this work as making a strong case for the tactical value of Ultra. Although initial surprise was achieved in the Normandy invasion, the German E-Boats remained a substantial threat to follow-on activities. Communications intelligence, confirmed by aerial photo-reconnaissance, pin-pointed the concentration of E-Boats at Le Havre. A daylight raid on 14 June 1944 by RAF Bomber Command essentially ended the threat. Tent has welded "diverse sources together into a readable and convincing narrative."

Terry, Nicholas. "Conflicting Signals: British Intelligence on the 'Final Solution' through Radio Intercepts and Other Sources, 1941–1942." Yad Vashem Studies 32 (2004): 351-396.

Teuscher, Christof, ed. Alan Turing: Life anf Legacy of a Great Thinker. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2004.

According to Kruh, Cryptologia 29.1 (Jan. 2005), this collection of 21 essays comes out of a 2002 conference pegged to what would have been Turing's 90th birthday. "[T]he distinguished contributors have expertise in such diverse fields as artificial intelligence, natural computing, mathematics, physics, cryptography, cognitive studies, philosophy, and anthropology."

Thirsk, James W.

1. Bletchley Park: An Inmate's Story. Bromley, UK: Galago, 2008.

The author worked as a traffic analyst attached to Hut 6 from the spring of 1942 until the end of the war. For Christensen, Cryptologia 34.1 (Jan. 2010), the book "is a bit disappointing" and "provides little that is new." Although he has some "new tales of life at Bletchley Park," the author "does not do as well when he writes about things that he did not expeience or people whom he did not meet."

2. "Traffic Analysis: A Log-Reader's Tale." In Action This Day: Bletchley Park from the Breaking of the Enigma Code to the Birth of the Modern Computer, eds. Ralph Erskine and Michael Smith, 264-277, 496. London and New York: Bantam, 2001.

Thomas, Edward E. "A Sidelong Glance at Alan Turing." In In the Name of Intelligence: Essays in Honor of Walter Pforzheimer, eds. Hayden B. Peake and Samuel Halpern, 461-469. Washington, DC: NIBC Press, 1994.

Thomas, Martin. "France in British Signals Intelligence, 1939-1945." French History 14, no. 1 (2000), 41-66.

Tyas, Stephen. "Adolf Eichmann: New Information from British Signals Intelligence." In Secret Intelligence and the Holocaust, ed. David Bankier, 213-244. New York: Enigma, 2006.

Ulbricht, Heinz. Die Schlüsselmaschine Enigma: Trügerische Sicherheit. Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, 2007.

Kahn, Intelligencer 17.1 (Winter-Spring 2009), calls this work "the most exhaustive on the Enigma itself ever written."

Ulbricht, Heinz. "Uncle Dick and Other Horrors of the Enigma." Journal of Intelligence History 1, no. 1 (Summer 2001): 44-53. [http://www.intelligence-history.org]

From abstract: "Bletchley Park was quite effective in solving the German keys [of the Enigma] until in January 1944 some messages resisted the usual treatment. This was due to an additional reflector,... soon nicknamed 'Uncle Dick'.... Fortunately, different key nets used either one or the other reflector and even committed the sin of re-enciphering messages.... Another new contraption designed to improve the security of the Enigma in 1944 was the 'Enigma-Uhr.' It was the only alteration by the Germans ... that had been introduced without any warning.... In the worst case, a message had been encoded with both 'Dora' and the 'Uhr.' These and other measures confirm that the Enigma, if handled properly, was indeed unbreakable by any known method."

van der Meulen, Michael. "German WW II Documents on Cryptography and Cryptanalysis." International Intelligence History Study Group Newsletter 6, no. 1 (Summer 1998). [http:// intelligence-history.wiso.uni-erlangen.de/]

"At the end of April 1998, the FOIA Office of the NSA submitted a list of translated German World War II documents related to cryptography and cryptanalysis.... Footnote 1 of the document DF 210 ... reveals the origin of the 'DF'-series as a collection of miscellaneous translations of German documents which were received by the early TICOM section of the Signal Security Agency and kept within a special folder for documents related to TICOM material... The introduction to the listing further states that early translations made at Army Security Agency ... were not numbered but sent to GCHQ, England w[h]ere they were issued in the TICOM/D series."

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