UNITED KINGDOM

World War II

Ultra

H - J

Haines, William W. Ultra and the History of U.S. Strategic Air Force in Europe vs. German Air Force. Westport CT: Greenwood, 1980. Frederick, MD: University Press of America, 1986.

Nautical Brass Bibliography says that this book explains "[h]ow Enigma messages reporting on German shortages of manpower and equipment were taken advantage of by the U.S. Air Force."

Hanyok, Robert J. Eavesdropping on Hell: Historical Guide to Western Communications Intelligence and the Holocaust, 1939-1945. Ft. George Meade, MD: National Security Agency, Center for Cryptologic History, 2005. [Available at: http://www.nsa.gov/about/_files/cryptologic_heritage/publications/wwii/eavesdropping.pdf]

Aftergood, Secrecy News (from the FAS Project on Government Secrecy) 2005, no. 54 (8 Jun. 2005), refers to this work as a "major historical study of communications intelligence (COMINT) regarding the destruction of European Jewry and other targeted populations during World War II."

For Alvarez, I&NS 20.4 (Dec. 2005), "[t]his is a superb monograph" that "provides an informed overview of how American and British communication intelligence (Comint) agencies reported the Holocaust.... Those seeking a short [167 pages] but authoritative account of codebreaking and the Holocaust need look no further." Wolfe, Cryptologia 33.4 (Oct. 2009), calls this book "an interesting read, filled with facts and specific examples of decrypted intercepts. It contains an invaluable set of references for the reader who is interested in pursuing the topic."

Harper, Stephen. Capturing Enigma: How HMS Petard Seized the German Naval Codes. New York: Sutton, 1999. Kampf um Enigma. Die Jagd auf U 559. Hamburg: E. S. Mittler & Sohn, 2001.

According to Kruh, Cryptologia 24.3, the author "tells the dramatic story of how the Petard attacked and captured U-559 " and its coveted Enigma coding material in the Eastern Mediterranean in October 1942.

Commenting on the German edition, Rohwer, JIH 2.2, notes that with the material captured from German U-Boat U 559, "Bletchley Park was able to break into the 'M-4'-cipher 'Triton' and could provide the Submarine Tracking Room (S.T.R.) with decrypted signals between B.d.U. [German U-Boat Command] and German U-Boats from mid-December 1942 on." This breakthrough "was one of the most important reasons for the change of the tide in the Battle of the Atlantic in May 1943.... Unfortunately, at least the German edition of this book contains several errors or mistakes."

Harrison, Edward D.R. "British Radio Security and Intelligence, 1939-43." English Historical Review 124 (2009): 53-93.

Royal Historical Society Database note: "Organisation established to intercept the wireless messages of enemy spies."

Hatch David A. "Enigma and Purple: How the Allies Broke German and Japanese Codes During the War." In Coding Theory and Cryptography: From Enigma and Geheimschreiber to Quantum Theory, ed. David Joyner, 53-61. New York: Springer, 2000.

Haufler, Hervie. Codebreakers' Victory: How the Allied Cryptographers Won World War II. New York: New American Library, 2003.

Kruh, Cryptologia 28.1, says that this is "a comprehensive account of the outstanding work by American and British codebreakers in the Allied victory.... Highlights of major battles in almost every major operation around the globe, on land, sea and in the air are included.... [The author] calls codebreaking 'the decisive factor'" in winning the war.

For Showers, NIPQ 24.2 (Apr. 2008), this is "without question the most comprehensive, clearly-written, accurate and revealing book on the world-wide efforts to provide intelligence support based on intercepted and exploited enemy communications for the benefit of U.S. and Allied forces in all theaters throughout the 1939 to 1945 duration of the war."

Hawkins, Richard. "'Bending the Beam': Myth and Reality in the Bombing of Coventry, Belfast and Dublin." Irish Sword 19 (1993-1994): 131-143.

Hayward, Gil. "The British Tunny Machine." In Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers, eds. B. Jack Copeland, et al., 291-296. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Herivel, John. Herivelismus and the German Military Enigma. Kidderminster, UK: M.M. Baldwin, 2008.

Hamer, Cryptologia 33.1 (Jan. 2009), says that is "a very important, eminently readable, and well-written book" by someone who was there.

Hill, Marion. Bletchley Park People: Churchill's Geese That Never Cackled. Osceola, WI: Motorbooks International, 2004. Stroud, UK: Sutton, 2004.

Kruh, Cryptologia 29.2 (Apr. 2005), notes that "this book is not about how Enigma was broken. Instead it is about the personal stories of the people who worked at Bletchley Park." The author provides "a remarkable insight into the daily lives of the civilian and service personnel who contributed to the breaking of the Enigma and other Axis secret messages."

Hilton, Peter. "Living with Fish: Breaking Tunny in the Newmanry and the Testery." In Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers, eds. B. Jack Copeland, et al., 189-203. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Hilton, Peter. "Reminiscences and Reflections of a Codebreaker." In Coding Theory and Cryptography: From Enigma and Geheimschreiber to Quantum Theory, ed. David Joyner, 1-8. New York: Springer, 2000.

Hoare, Oliver, ed. Enigma: Code-breaking and the Second World War: The True Story through Contemporary Documents. Richmond: Public Record Office, 2002.

Hodges, Andrew. Alan Turing: The Enigma of Intelligence. London: Simon & Schuster, 1987. Alan Turing: The Enigma. London: Vintage, 1992. Alan Turing: The Enigma, The Centenary Edition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012.

According to Surveillant 2.4, the 1992 edition has a new introduction by the author as a tie-in to the BBC documentary of his book. The book provides an "incisive examination of the brilliant scientist who broke 'Enigma.'" Sexton calls this an "exhaustively researched and insightful biography." Christensen, Cryptologia 37.4 (2013), notes that the Centenary Edition includes a new preface and a Foreword by Douglas Hofstadler.

See also B. Jack Copeland, Turing: Pioneer of the Information Age (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012); Andrew Hodges, "Alan Turing," In Cambridge Scientific Minds, eds. Peter Harman and Simon Mitton, 253-268 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002); Christof Teuscher, ed., Alan Turing: Life and Legacy of a Great Thinker (New York: Springer-Verlag, 2004); Edward E. Thomas, "A Sidelong Glance at Alan Turing," in In the Name of Intelligence: Essays in Honor of Walter Pforzheimer, eds. Hayden B. Peake and Samuel Halpern, 461-469 (Washington, DC: NIBC Press, 1994); and Sara Turing, Alan M. Turing, Centenary Edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012).

Andrew Hodges maintains a substantial Website dedicated to Alan Turing: http://www.turing.org.uk/turing/. Included on Hodges' site is the text and an analysis of "Turing's Treatise on the Enigma," declassified in 1996. The text is at: http://cryptocellar.org/Turing/. The analysis is at: http://www.turing.org.uk/publications/profsbook.html.

Jackson, John.

1. Ultra's Arctic War: PQ 17 Convoy Disaster, Sinking of the Scharnhorst, Hunting the Tirpitz. Milton Keynes, UK: Military Press, 2003.

Kruh, Cryptologia 28.3, says that this is "[a]n excellent book ... about the war at sea and how intelligence derived from breaking German Enigma messages played a vital role."

2. ed. The Secret War of Hut 3: The First Story of How Intelligence from Enigma Signals Decoded at Bletchley Park Was Used During World War II. London: Military Press, 2002.

According to Kruh, Cryptologia 28.1, "Hut 3 was responsible for the processing of signals once the code in which they had been transmitted had been broken. They translated and annotated them and reported the contents to Government departments and commanders in the field." This work is based on the now declassified history of Hut 3's activities, written at the end of the war by those who worked there.

Jarvis, Peter. The German Battleships. Bletchley Park Report no. 2. Bletchley Park, UK: Bletchley Park Co. Ltd., 1997.

Kruh, Cryptologia 22.2: Includes a description of the German Naval Enigma cipher machines and their role in various battles.

Jarvis, Sue. Japanese Codes. Bletchley Park Report no. 6. Bletchley Park, UK: Bletchley Park Co. Ltd., 1997.

Kruh, Cryptologia 22.2: Includes a discussion of "events leading up to Pearl Harbor, British/US intelligence cooperation before Pearl Harbor, and the attack on Ceylon and the Bay of Bengal."

Jeffries, John C., Jr. Justice Lewis F. Powell, Jr.: A Biography. Riverside, NJ: Scribner's, 1994.

Surveillant 3.6: This is a "judicious biography" by a former law clerk. It includes "Powell's early work in OSS and his role in ULTRA intelligence." See also, Putney, ed., Ultra and the Army Air Forces in World War II: An Interview with Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Lewis F. Powell, Jr (1987).

Jenkins, Roy Harris [Baron Jenkins of Hillhead]. "Setter and Breaker." In Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers, eds. B. Jack Copeland, et al., 260-263, 419-451. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Johnson, Kerry, and John Gallehawk. Figuring It Out at Bletchley Park 1939-1945. [UK]: BookTower, 2007.

Jones, R.V. "A Sidelight on Bletchley, 1942." Intelligence and National Security 9, no. 1 (Jan. 1994): 1-11.

Includes 1942 note from Jones on reorganization.

Joyner, David, and David Kahn, eds. "Edited Transcript of Interview with Peter Hilton for 'Secrets of War.'" Cryptologia 30, no. 3 (Jul.-Sep. 2006): 236-250.

From former Bletchley Park mathematician Peter Hilton's interview in the summer of 1997 for the History Channel's "Secrets of War" series.

 

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