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World War II

Ultra

D - E

Davies, Donald W. "The Bombe: A Remarkable Logic Machine." Cryptologia 23, no. 2 (Apr. 1999): 108-138.

Conceived by Alan Turing and augmented by Gordon Welchman, the electromechanical British bombe is described in this article both as to design and operation. Davies concludes that the earlier Polish bombe may have represented a forerunner of the innovative British bombe.

Davies, Philip H. J. "From Amateurs to Professionals : GC&CS and Institution-building in Sigint." In Action This Day: Bletchley Park from the Breaking of the Enigma Code to the Birth of the Modern Computer, eds. Ralph Erskine and Michael Smith, 386-402, 508-511. London and New York: Bantam, 2001.v

Deavours, Cipher A.

1. "Lobsters, Crabs, and the Abwehr Enigma." Cryptologia 21, no. 3 (Jul. 1997): 193-199.

The author discusses the Abwehr's variant of the Enigma cryptograph and identifies some of the machine's cryptanalytic weaknesses.

2. and James Reeds. "The Enigma -- Historical Perspective." Cryptologia 1, no. 4 (Oct. 1977): 381-391.

Sexton lauds this article as an "excellent and understandable account of the technical development of the ENIGMA cipher machine."

Denniston, Robin. "Research Note: Yanks to Lunch -- An Early Glimpse of Anglo-American Signals Intelligence Co-operation, March 1941." Intelligence and National Security 11, no. 2 (Apr. 1996): 357-359.

Urinary tract operations on GCCQ's operational head at Bletchley Park, Alastair Denniston, may well have forestalled one of the earlier efforts (the Sinkov visit) toward Anglo-American cooperation in the Sigint arena.

Deutsch, Harold C.

1. "Clients of Ultra: American Captains." Parameters 15 (Summer 1985): 55-62.

The author discusses the attitudes of major U.S. commanders toward the Ultra intelligence. Patton may have made the best use of the material.

2. "Commanding Generals and the Uses of Intelligence." Intelligence and National Security 3, no. 3 (Jul. 1988): 194-260.

Deutsch surveys the use made of intelligence during World War II by nine commanders, eight Allied and one German. This is one of those articles that should be on the "must read" list of anyone interested in the use of intelligence.

3. "The Historical Impact of Revealing the Ultra Secret." Parameters 7, no. 3 (1977): 16-32.

"Whatever the verdict on the hotly debated question of whether the ULTRA revelations require a 'complete' rewriting of World War II history, there can be no argument that they will demand the reexamination of a vast complex of historical problems."

4. "The Influence of Ultra on World War II." Parameters 8, no. 3 (Dec. 1978): 2-15.

This and the immediately preceding article should be read together, as they deal with two aspects of the same problem: assessing the impact of Ultra (and intelligence generally) on World War II. Deutsch makes clear his belief that the intelligence factor must be an important factor in discussing the history of the war. He wrote at that time that the then-new Ultra revelations would be more likely to impact the "why" questions of the war than the "what" questions. Thirty years later that still looks like a good analysis.

DeWeerd, Harvey A. "Churchill, Coventry and Ultra." Aerospace Historian 27 (Dec. 1980): 227-229.

According to Sexton, the author "debunks" the myth that Churchill sacrificed Coventry in order to safeguard the Ultra secret.

Dunn, Walter S., Jr. "The 'Ultra' Papers." Military Affairs 42 (Oct. 1978): 134-136. [Petersen]

Edgerley, Peter. "The Testery and the Breaking of Fish." In Colossus: The Secret of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers, ed. B. Jack Copeland, et al., 269-280. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Enever, Ted. Britain's Best Secret: Ultra's Base at Bletchley Park. Stroud, UK: Alan Sutton, 1994. Dover, NH: Alan Sutton, 1994. 2d ed. Dover, NH: Alan Sutton, 1995.

Kruh, Cryptologia 20.1, sees this as "a fascinating 'tour'" of the Bletchley Park complex. The author provides "an account of the activities in each building, machines and equipment, and many of the people who worked there." According to Nautical Brass Bibliography, this book presents a "[h]istory, physical description and tour of Bletchley Park as it is today. [There are m]inimal references to codebreaking, per se."

Erskine, Ralph.

Ewing, Alfred W. "Some Special War Work." Pt.2. Cryptologia 5, no. 1 (Jan. 1981): 33-39.

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