UNITED KINGDOM

World War II

Mediterranean

H - Z

Hammond, Nicholas. Venture into Greece: With the Guerrillas, 1943-44. London: Kimber, 1983.

The author, who died in April 2001, commanded "underground British troops stationed in the Pindus range during the German occupation of Greece" in World War II. Telegraph (London), 5 Apr. 2001.

Hogan, David W., Jr. U.S. Army Special Operations in World War II. CMH Publication 70-42. Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 1992

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Special Operations in the Mediterranean

Darby's Rangers

North Africa

Sicily and Italy

The 1st Special Service Force

The Office of Strategic Services in the Mediterranean

Chapter 6. Conclusion

Kloman, Erasmus H. Assignment Algiers: With the OSS in the Mediterranean Theater. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2005.

From publisher: As OSS Acting Chief of Operations in the Mediterranean Theater, the author "helped organize and coordinate the actions of Special Operations (SO) teams that infiltrated Italy and occupied-France." The author "provides a fascinating inside view of the 'shadow war' within the larger conflagration of World War II."

Peake, Studies 50.1 (Mar. 2006), comments that the author's "narrative is something more than a first-hand account of OSS operations from a staff officer's perspective." Although Kloman tells of the OSS role supporting French partisans and the Italian resistance, "he also includes the day-to-day difficulties encountered with the often uncooperative British and the persistent confusion within OSS itself -- both of which limited the impact OSS had on the war.... In his perceptive epilogue, Kloman looks back on his wartime OSS service and the influence of the organization on postwar intelligence."

Lind, Lew. The Battle of the Wine Dark Sea: The Aegean Sea Campaign, 1940-45. [Australia]: Kangaroo Press, 1993.

Surveillant 3.6: This is a "concise and analytical account of the unusual war fought in the eastern Mediterranean in WWII to secure the Aegean Sea." It is "exciting and highly readable."

Marinos, Themistocles. Tr., Petros Ladas. Harling Mission--1942: The Gorgopotamos Operation. Athens: Papazisis Publications, 1993.

Surveillant 3.4/5 identifies this book as an "account of the destruction of the Gorgopotamos Bridge in Greece in WWII, one of the key railway bridges, northwest of Athens, used by Rommel to supply troops on the African front." Although this book is about a "single special operation," Potts, FILS 12.6, sees that operation as "one of the most effective and significant of its kind." The book "offers much practical insight into wartime resistance in Greece," and is to be "highly commended" for its "broad and balanced view."

Mulgan, John. Report on Experience: A Memoir on the Allies War. London: Oxford University Press, 1985. Baltimore, MD: Frontline, 2010.

According to Gilbert, http://www.warbooksreview.com, 14 Jul. 2010, the author was a New Zealander parachuted by SOE into occupied Greece. Mulgan "writes well of his time in the Greek mountains, and makes the good point that for those engaged in partisan activities the risks were relatively small: the Germans rarely ventured into the mountains, and when they did the highly mobile partisans had time to slip away to safer areas. It was the local peasants who suffered."

Myers, E.C.W. [Brig.] Greek Entanglement. London: Hart-Davis, 1955. Rev. ed. London: Sutton, 1985.

Sarafis, Journal of the Hellenic Diaspora 13.1-2 (1986), says the revised edition of this book by the first head of the British Military Mission in Greece "contains much new material."

Pawley, Margaret. In Obedience to Instructions: F.A.N.Y. with the SOE in the Wartime Mediterranean. London: Pen & Sword/Cooper, 1999.

The first-person story of the First Aid Nursing Yeomanry attached to SOE. See also, Popham, The FANY in Peace and War (2003). For more on the FANY/Princess Royal's Volunteer Corps, see http://www.fany.org.uk.

Popham, Hugh. The FANY in Peace and War: The Story of the First Aid Nursing Yeomanry, 1907-2003. Rev. ed. Barnsley, Yorkshire, UK: Leo Cooper, 2003.

Peake, Studies 49.3 (2005), notes that for the intelligence professional "[a] principal point of interest ... is the FANY's service in the Special Operations Executive (SOE) during World War II and their operations with the resistance in occupied France. Some 73 were trained as agents and 39 went to France. Several were caught by the Gestapo and ended their lives in Dachau and other camps. At a time when women in the intelligence services was not an everyday occurrence, the FANYs established a powerful precedent. Popham summarizes their story well, and the bibliography provides sources where more detail can be acquired." See also, Pawley, In Obedience to Instructions (1999).

Rendel, A.M. ("Sandy") Appointment in Crete: The Story of a British Agent. London: Allen Wingate, 1953.

Rubin, Barry. Istanbul Intrigues. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989. [pb] With Corrections and New Foreword. New York: Pharos, 1991. New ed. Istanbul: Bosphorus University Press, 2002.

Aftergood, Secrecy News, 10 Dec. 2002, calls this work "[a] richly anecdotal history of diplomacy and espionage in Istanbul during World War II.... Drawing on interviews with principals and primary sources in multiple languages (but without scholarly apparatus), Rubin offers a highly readable account of the political and military ferment that characterized Istanbul in that momentous time."

For Gunter, IJI&C 5.3, Istanbul Intrigues is a "fast-paced, very readable series of historical vignettes"; there are no footnotes. McGinnis, Cryptolog, Summer 1996, notes that the book "contains a list of the names of some of the spies as well as many of the code words used by the OSS during Turkish spy operations. Clearly scholarly [note conflict with Aftergood's and Gunter's points], meticulously researched, amusing at times, it is well worth reading."

Saraphis, Stephanos G. Tr., Marian Pascoe. Greek Resistance Army: The Story of ELAS. London: Birch Books, 1951.

Seydi, Süleyman. "The Intelligence War in Turkey During the Second World War: A Nazi Spy on British Premises in Istanbul." Middle Eastern Studies 40, no. 3 (2004): 75-85.

Smyth, Denis. "Screening 'Torch': Allied Counter-Intelligence and the Spanish Threat to the Secrecy of the Allied Invasion of French North Africa in November 1942." Intelligence and National Security 4, no. 2 (Apr. 1989): 335-356.

"The Anglo-American counter-intelligence and security services ... managed to keep the Spaniards in the dark about Torch for as long as secrecy ... matter[ed]."

Spooner, Tony. Supreme Gallantry: Malta's Role in the Allied Victory, 1939-1945. London: John Murray, 1996.

Foot, I&NS 12.2, notes that Spooner flew from Luqa during Malta's wartime crisis, so he writes of the day-to-day life there from personal experience. No convoy, known through Ultra, could be attacked until it had been sighted by Allied aircraft or vessels. Nevertheless, much of the routing of reconnaissance aircraft and submarines out of Malta was assisted by Ultra information; this is a clear instance of the tactical use of Ultra. To protect that vital source, a notional anti-fascist source in Naples was created.

Stevens, John Melior, Christopher Montague Woodhouse, and David John Wallace. Ed., Lars Bærentzen. British Reports on Greece 1943-1944. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum, 1982.

Google: "A collection of reports from British liaison officers operating in Greece 1943-44. They are historically important both for the information they contain and because they express the views of British officers sent into occupied Greece with considerable responsibilities."

Tamkin, Nicholas. Britain, Turkey and the Soviet Union, 1940-45: Strategy, Diplomacy and Intelligence in the Eastern Mediterranean. Studies in Military and Strategic History. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

From publisher: This work "offers the first comprehensive analysis of Anglo-Turkish relations during the period. It bridges a significant gap in the international history of the 1940s 'between world war and cold war', addressing Turkey's place in British strategy at three key stages in the war effort - in the Balkans in the winter of 1940-41, on the 'Northern Front' in 1941-42, and in the Eastern Mediterranean in 1943."

Ward, Michael. Greek Assignments: SOE 1943-1948 UNSCOB. Athens: Lycabettus Press, 1992.

Williams, Manuela. "Mussolini's Secret War in the Mediterranean and the Middle East: Italian Intelligence and the British Response." Intelligence and National Security 22, no. 6 (Dec. 2007): 881-904.

From abstract: Despite the fragmentation of the Italian Fascist intelligence services, "[t]heir ability to establish relations ... with Arab nationalist leaders and their intense activities in British colonies, protectorates and mandates generated concern within the British Foreign and Colonial Offices. Meanwhile, poor intelligence coordination and assessment coupled with misguided assumptions about the nature of Arab nationalism hindered Britain's response to the challenge mounted by Mussolini's regime."

Woodhouse, Christopher Montague.

Woodhouse was the commander of the Allied Military Mission to the Greek Resistance in World War II.

1. Apple of Discord: A Survey of Recent Greek Politics in Their International Setting. London: Hutchinson, 1951.

Pforzheimer, Studies 5.2 (Spring 1961), identifies this work as "[a]n authoritative account of Greek resistance against the Germans in World War II."

2. Something Ventured: The Autobiography of C.M. Woodhouse. London: Granada, 1982.

Pforzheimer: This autobiography includes the author's wartime experiences and his post-war intelligence assignments.

3. The Struggle for Greece, 1941-1948. London: Hart-Davis, MacGibbon, 1976.

Pforzheimer: This is an "authoritative account of the Greek Resistance in World War II and the internal postwar civil war which the Resistance helped to spawn."

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