UNITED KINGDOM

Post-World War II

Northern Ireland & the IRA

H - Z

See http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/: CAIN (Conflict Archive on the INternet) is devoted to providing a wide range of information and source material on the Northern Ireland conflict and politics in the region from 1968 to the present. The web site was made available in March 1997. CAIN is based within the University of Ulster and is located at the Magee Campus.

Jeffery, Keith.

1. "The Security Forces." Revue française de civilisation britannique 5 (1990), 131-144.

2. "Security Policy in Northern Ireland: Some Reflections on the Management of Violent Conflict." Terrorism and Political Violence 2 (1990): 21-34.

Lindsay, Kennedy. Ambush at Tully-West: The British Intelligence Service in Action. Dundalk: Dunrod Press, 1980.

Loftus, John, and Emily McIntyre. Valhalla's Wake: The IRA, M16, and the Assassination of a Young American. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1989.

Steck, Library Journal (from Amazon.com), notes that the co-author of this book is the mother of the young American in the title. The authors claim that in 1984, "[a]fter the arms-carrying Irish vessel S.S. Valhalla was intercepted by British intelligence, [John] McIntyre was secretly assassinated by the British (his body was never found), made to take the fall to protect the true British mole on board."

Maguire, Keith. "The Intelligence War in Northern Ireland." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 4, no. 2 (Summer 1990): 145-165.

McDonald, Henry. "IRA Spy Row Deepens." The Observer, 10 Feb. 2008. [http://www.guardian.co.uk]

Northern Ireland's Truth Commissioners have been "'have been stunned by how many agents the RUC and MI5 had inside the Provos,' one source said" on 9 February 2008. "The revelations regarding spies inside republican organisations comes as the IRA and Sinn Féin absorbs the shock over the Roy McShane affair. The 58-year-old west Belfast republican was revealed on Friday as a long-term MI5 agent inside the IRA. McShane had been a bodyguard and driver for senior Sinn Féin figures, including Gerry Adams."

McGartland, Martin.

1. Dead Man Running: A True Story of a Secret Agent's Escape from the IRA and MI5. Edinburgh: Mainstream, 1999.

From publisher: "For more than four years Martin McGartland worked undercover as a British agent inside the Provisional IRA..... [This book] traces his ... quest for the truth behind his betrayal by British officialdom. Shortly after this book was first published, McGartland was shot by an execution squad ... and somehow survived."

2. Fifty Dead Men Walking: The True Story of a British Secret Agent Inside the IRA. London: Blake, 1997. Norwalk, CT: Hastings House, 1997.

According to West, History 26.1, the author worked as the Royal Ulster Constabulary's "star penetration agent" of the Provisional IRA in Belfast from 1989 to 1991. Barbash, WPNWE, 4 May 1998, finds McGartland's book "unusually illuminating." Although his work as a spy for the British police "is only modestly interesting," the author's description of growing up in a Catholic ghetto of Belfast is "[f]ar more revealing."

Moran, Jon. "Evaluating Special Branch and the Use of Informant Intelligence in Northern Ireland." Intelligence and National Security 25, no. 1 (Feb. 2010): 1-23.

From abstract: "After setting out the development of the police as the dominant organization in handling informants and the centrality of informant intelligence to counter terrorism, the article discusses some of the serious ethical criticisms which have been raised concerning the use of informants.... The articles evaluates these criticisms in context and calls for a more situated, nuanced account of the costs and benefits of informant intelligence in Northern Ireland."

Mullan, Don.

1. The Dublin and Monaghan Bombings. Dublin: Wolfhound, 2000.

Bombings in 1972-1974.

2. And John Scally. Eyewitness Bloody Sunday. Dublin: Wolfhound, 1998.

Murray, Raymond. The SAS in Ireland. Chester Springs, PA: Dufour Editions, 1992.

Neumann, Peter R. "The Myth of Ulsterization in British Security Policy in Northern Ireland." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 26, no. 5 (2003): 365-77.

Newsinger, John. "From Counter-insurgency to Internal Security: Northern Ireland, 1969-1992." Small Wars and Insurgencies 6, no. 1 (1995): 88-91.

O'Halpin, Eunan.

1. "Anglo-Irish Security Co-operation since 1969: A Dublin Perspective." Conflict Quarterly 10, no 1 (1990): 1-18.

2. The British Joint Intelligence Committee and Ireland, 1965-1972. Discussion Paper No. 211. Dublin: Institute for International Integration Studies, 2007.

"[W]here Ireland was concerned the JIC system failed on three counts. Firstly, it provided no advance warning of the likely deterioration in public order in Northern Ireland...; secondly, until 1970 at the earliest it gave no consideration to the political conditions within Northern Ireland which exacerbated political unrest, or to the internal weaknesses of the Northern Ireland government. Thirdly,... it is certain that the committee enjoined a framework for the interrogation of internees which was completely out of touch with western European norms about how states should treat their citizens."

3. "Intelligence and Anglo-Irish Relations, 1922-1973." In  Intelligence, Statecraft and International Power: Papers Read before the 27th Irish Conference of Historians Held at Trinity College, Dublin, 19-21 May 2005, eds. Eunan O'Halpin, Robert Armstrong, and Jane Ohlmeyer, 132-150. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2006.

4. "'A poor thing but our own': The Joint Intelligence Committee and Ireland, 1965-72." Intelligence and National Security 23, no. 5 (Oct. 2008): 658-680.

The author concludes that "where Ireland was concerned the JIC system failed on several counts.... [T]he remarkable feature of the JIC's record in the years leading up to the outbreak of the Troubles is not how few but how many red herrings it pursued."

Parker, John. Death of a Hero. London: Metro, 1998.

Although Death of a Hero is ostensibly about Capt. Robert Nairac, Army Surveillance Unit member killed by the IRA in 1977, van Straubenzee, Spectator, 13 Mar. 1999, says the book "contains much background to the work of army intelligence and the Special Forces. It is very informative and immensely readable," although it does have some "annoying inaccuracies." See also, Anthony Bradley, Requiem for a Spy (1992).

Rennie, James. The Operators. London: Century, 1997.

West, History 26.1, notes that this work is about the British Army's 14th Intelligence Company ("14 Int"), an "extraordinarily secretive" unit that "mounts highly sophisticated surveillance operations." See also, Sarah Ford, One Up (1997).

Sanders, Andrew. "Northern Ireland: The Intelligence War, 1969-75." The British Journal of Politics & International Relations 13, no. 2 (2011): 230-248.

Soule, John W. "Problems in Applying Counterterrorism to Prevent Terrorism: Two Decades of Violence in Northern Ireland Reconsidered." Terrorism 12, no. 1 (1989): 31-46.

Stalker, John. Stalker. London: Harrap, 1988. New York: Viking Penguin, 1988.

Taylor, Peter. Brits: The War against the IRA. London: Bloomsbury, 2001.

From publisher: The author, a BBC documentary producer, "details the more controversial incidents in the record of the security and intelligence agencies."

Taylor, Peter. Stalker: The Search for the Truth. London: Faber & Faber, 1987.

Jeffrey, I&NS 3.2, says that Taylor provides "a thoughtful discussion about intelligence problems in a situation such as exists in Northern Ireland." See also, Frank Stalker, Stalker (1988) and Frank Doherty, The Stalker Affair (1986).

Townsend, Mark, and Henry McDonald. "New Irish Terror Groups Are Threat to UK, Warn Police." The Guardian (UK), 24 Apr. 2011. [http://www.guardian.co.uk]

According to senior counter-terrorism sources, "the threat from dissidents attacking the mainland 'now goes beyond an aspiration' and ... they now possess the means to mount an attack across the Irish Sea. Amid rising tension in the province and fears of an 'Easter offensive' by dissident groups, police in Northern Ireland also warned that anti-ceasefire republicans were plotting to kill more police officers."

Urban, Mark. Big Boys' Rules: The Secret Struggle Against the I.R.A. London: Faber and Faber, 1992. 2001.

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