UNITED KINGDOM

Post-Cold War

1990 - 1997

Materials presented chronologically.

Norton-Taylor, Richard. "GCHQ Facing Job Cuts." The Guardian, 4 Feb. 1992, 5.

Economist. Editors. "Spooked Out." 24 Jul. 1993, 61.

"The government has so far continued to fend off demands for proper accountability" of its intelligence organizations. "Canada's Security Intelligence Review Committee, comprising non-MPs chosen by the prime minister after consulting the opposition, is the likeliest model for Mr. Major to follow."

Bates, Stephen. "HMSO Reveals Britain Employs 10,766 Spies at Home and Abroad." The Guardian, 25 Mar. 1994, 11.

Fitzgerald, Patrick. "An Incalculable Loss for MI5." New Statesman & Society 7 (10 Jun. 1994): 12-13.

Wadham, John. "The Intelligence Services Act 1994." Modern Law Review 57 (Nov. 1994): 916-927.

Norton-Taylor, Richard. "Goal Posts Keep Moving in the Spying Game." Manchester Guardian Weekly, 1 Jan. 1995, 8.

Adams, James, and David Leppard. "Spy Rivals Crow as GCHQ Faces Cuts." Sunday Times, 26 Mar. 1995.

Simpson, John. "In From the Cold." The Spectator, 27 Nov. 1995, 16-18.

Major, John [Prime Minister], and Tom King [CH MP, Chairman, Intelligence and Security Committee]. Intelligence and Security Committee: Annual Report 1995, Intelligence Services Act of 1994, Chapter 13. London: HMSO, 1996.

Gedye, Robin, and Christopher Lockwood. "Magazine Names Diplomat as MI6 Spy Who Paid for Russian Secrets." Telegraph (London), 30 Jan. 1996. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

"Rosemary Sharpe,... until recently the first secretary at the British embassy in Berlin," was named by the German magazine Der Spiegel on 29 January 1996 "as the MI6 operative who bought information from German intelligence officials now under investigation on corruption-related charges.... It is understood that Miss Sharpe became involved in the 'left-overs' of a deal under which German intelligence set up a unit in 1991 to purchase sensitive Soviet military equipment from the departing army. Three of the members of the unit are alleged to have established a rogue operation in which they sold on material to American and British secret services. Everything from tanks to documents were spirited out of the barracks of the departing Soviet army in return for cash. It is stressed that none of the material related to nuclear weapons."

Johnston, Philip. "MPs Fear 'Untold Damage' Caused by CIA Traitor Ames." Telegraph (London), 29 Mar. 1996. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

According to a report from the British Parliament's Intelligence and Security Committee, Aldrich Ames "may have caused untold damage to British security interests." The Committee's report was "highly critical" of "the way the intelligence agencies on both sides of the Atlantic handled the Ames scandal." The Committee "said it was not satisfied that the matter was being treated seriously enough," and "accused the CIA of failing to furnish its British counterpart with enough information."

Smith, Michael. "The Spies: Russia Still the Main Concern for Britain." Telegraph (London), 8 May 1996. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

"Britain's intelligence requirements are still dominated by the former Soviet Union.... Although Russia is no longer seen as a direct military threat to Britain, the break-up of the Soviet bloc has produced new, more urgent intelligence priorities."

Smith, Michael. "Spy School Will Take Fee-Paying Foreign Agents." Telegraph (London), 25 Oct. 1996. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

"A new training base for all three [military] Services ... is being set up at Chicksands.... The new military intelligence agency ... [is] known as the Defence Intelligence and Security Centre (DISC)." Units that will be based at Chicksands come from the Army's Intelligence Corps headquarters, including the "Joint Services Intelligence Organisation, which trains interrogators, and those who may need to resist their measures, such as MI6, the SAS and the Special Boat Service"; "the Defence Special Signals School, a combination of the Army, Navy and RAF units which trains servicemen to work with the GCHQ secret listening centre at Cheltenham"; the Joint School of Photographic Interpretation; and the Defence Intelligence and Security School.

Marshall, Roger D., BEM. "Operation Grapple: British Armed Forces in United Nations Protection Force." Military Intelligence 22, no. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 1996): 25-26, 57-58.

The British force first deployed to Croatia and Bosnia in October 1992 with the task of escorting United Nations High Commissiom for Refugees (UNHCR) humanitarian convoys. Other tasks would follow.

Harvey, Donald [RADM/USN (Ret.)]. "MI5 Jobs Up but Bodies Down." Periscope 22, no. 1 (1997): 8.

Adams, James. "MI6 Digs Its Spies into Hong Kong to Pass on Chinese Whispers." Times (London), 20 Apr. 1997. [http://www.the-times.co.uk]

When Britain hands over Hong Kong to Chinese rule in July 1997, some of its "agents will stay behind under deep cover. Others are being assigned to secret listening posts throughout the Far East." GCHQ "has dismantled its Stanley Fort satellite station"; and its "operations have been transferred to Geraldton in Western Australia, a listening post established in 1993 in co-operation with the Australian Defence Signals Directorate. In addition, GCHQ and MI6 ... have boosted their operations in Malaysia, Thailand and South Korea.... To ensure continued intelligence from Hong Kong, GCHQ and MI6 have also established extensive 'stay behind' networks that include agents and bugs embedded in computers and buildings."

Economist. Editors. "I Spy an Accountant." 8 Nov. 1997, 61-62.

ProQuest: "The UK government has announced that it intends to do the first complete review of spending by the country's intelligence services."

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