UNITED KINGDOM

Post-Cold War

2005

Generally

Materials presented chronologically.

O'Halpin, Eunan. "British Intelligence and the Case for Confronting Iraq: Evidence from the Butler and Hutton Reports." Irish Studies in International Affairs 16 (2005): 89–102.

"[T]he Hutton Inquiry and the Butler report disclose alarming weaknesses at the heart of British government. The JIC, so far from being the font of dispassionate, unbiased, unvarnished intelligence analysis[,]... emerges as a craven creature that allowed the government's presentational priorities to take precedence over cautious and balanced assessment on the basis of the evidence available."

Smith, Michael. "Industry Chief Joins MI6 Board in Revamp." Telegraph (London), 12 Jan. 2005. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

Government officials said on 11 January 2005 that "MI6 has appointed a leading industry executive to its board of directors to 'challenge the group think' that led to faulty intelligence on Iraqi weapons of mass destruction." The unnamed executive "will become a non-executive member of the board which is the top decision-making body within Britain's main foreign intelligence-gathering body." According to one official, the "appointment is one of a number of 'key outcomes' of the review of the service set in train by John Scarlett" after he took over as head of MI6.

Boustany, Nora. "Former British Spy Chief Learned Early To Cope With Danger and Move On." Washington Post, 28 Jan. 2005, A22. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

"Stella Rimington made it to the top of MI5 ... in 1992, becoming the first woman in that position. She had survived that once male-dominated club, spending decades toiling in secret to stay ahead in the Cold War, outsmart would-be attacks by the Irish Republican Army and wrestle with the emerging challenges of international terrorism. She is now retired from the service and the author of 'At Risk,' a thriller she hopes will become one in a series."

Lever, Paul. "If It's Broke, Fix It: The Reform of Two Intelligence Services." RUSI Journal, Feb. 2005. [www.rusi.org/intelligence]

"Last summer it was a tale of two reports. The Senate Intelligence Committee produced a scathing condemnation of the US intelligence community's assessment of Iraq's capability ... to deliver weapons of mass destruction. Lord Butler and his team published a more measured, but no less critical, review of the parallel failures in Britain. In both cases reforms were promised.... [T]hese reforms are [now] in place or at any rate in early prospect. As with the reports which provided the impetus for them their styles are very different."

Reuters. "Iraq Dispute Leads Britain to Revamp Intelligence." Washington Post, 24 Mar. 2005, A15. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

According to Foreign Secretary Jack Straw on 23 March 2005, the British intelligence agencies "have adopted new safeguards" with regard to the processing of secret intelligence. The Foreign Secretary said that "the procedures of the Joint Intelligence Committee, which compiled the September 2002 dossier [used by the British government to justify the invasion of Iraq], had been 'reviewed and tightened up' since the [Robin] Butler report" of July 2004.

Hennessy, Peter. "The British Secret State Old and New." RUSI Journal, Jun. 2005. [www.rusi.org/intelligence]

The Cold War experience "formed the senior figures in the British intelligence community who were at the top when catastrophe struck on 11 September 2001, during the run-up to the Iraq War of 2003 and the inquests which followed." It now falls to those same leaders "to implement the reforms to the British intelligence process which were announced by Jack Straw, the Foreign and Commonwealth Secretary, on 23 March 2005."

Coll, Steve, and Susan B. Glasser. "Attacks Bear Earmarks of Evolving Al Qaeda: Targets, Timing Both Familiar." Washington Post, 8 Jul. 2005, A1. [http://ww.washingtonpost.com]

"After Sept. 11, 2001, the world learned that counterterrorism specialists had seen that kind of attack coming, they just did not know when and where it would take place. In a similar sense, they saw [the 7 July 2005] London bombings coming, too; they have been warning of such a strike on European soil for much of this year. It took only a few hours for British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw to conclude that the assault bore the 'hallmarks of an al Qaeda-related attack.' And while investigators were still sifting through the evidence, the available facts ... conformed almost precisely to the methods of what specialists describe as an evolving al Qaeda movement."

Winnett, Robert, and David Leppard. "Terror in London: Leaked No 10 Dossier Reveals Al-Qaeda’s British Recruits." Sunday Times (London), 10 Jul. 2005. [http://www.timesonline.co.uk]

According to a joint Home Office and Foreign Office dossier prepared for the prime minister last year, "Al-Qaeda is secretly recruiting affluent, middle-class Muslims in British universities and colleges to carry out terrorist attacks in this country.... A network of 'extremist recruiters' is circulating on campuses targeting people with 'technical and professional qualifications', particularly engineering and IT degrees."

Press Association. "MI5 Chief Warns on Civil Liberties ." 10 Sep. 2005. [http://news.scotsman.com]

MI5 Director-General Dame Eliza Manningham-Buller, speaking in the Netherlands on 1 September 2005, warned that "civil liberties may have to be eroded to protect British citizens from terrorist attacks."

La Guardia, Anton. "MI6 Recruits Spies on Its Own Website." Telegraph (London), 13 Oct. 2005. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

On 12 October 2005, "MI6 took another step out of the shadows ... when it launched its official website": www.mi6.gov.uk and www.sis.gov.uk.

Carassava, Anthee. "Accused of Kidnapping, 10 Agents Face Lawsuit." New York Times, 29 Dec. 2005. [http://www.nytimes.com]

On 28 December 2005, Greek lawyer Frangiscos Ragoussis "filed a lawsuit against 10 people he contends are British and Greek intelligence agents, on behalf of 28 Pakistanis working in the country who say they were kidnapped and tortured by the agents after the July 7 terrorist bombings in London." The Greek investigative newspaper Proto Thema "ran the names of a number of the people it said were agents involved in the case [and] said the British agent it named was the Athens station chief for British intelligence. The newspaper ... said the Briton had led the covert operation with another British intelligence officer whom it did not name."

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