UNITED KINGDOM

Post-Cold War

2000

Materials presented chronologically.

Smith, Michael. "Crime and Instability Ensure Russia Stays Britain's Top Target." Telegraph (London), 16 Mar. 2000. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

"While the KGB has changed its name, its fingers still reach into every area of Russian society. The country's Mafia is riddled with Lubyanka-trained hoods who found capitalism provided them with more lucrative ways of employing their skills.... The Soviet Union may have been dangerous, but at least you knew where you were. The new Russia with its political uncertainties, nuclear weaponry and crime is just as dangerous and far less predictable."

Evans, Michael. "Half of MI6's Spending 'Still Kept A Secret.'" Times (London), 17 Mar. 2000. [http://www.the-times.co.uk]

According to Stephen Dorril, MI6's "biggest secret ... is that it spends at least twice the amount officially registered with Parliament.... The additional expenditure is buried in the budgets of other government departments, despite claims by the Treasury that all spending by the security and intelligence services is now included in a combined published figure.... The official combined budget for MI6, MI5 and GCHQ ... is £776 million, of which some £150 million is spent on MI6." Dorril "claims that the real MI6 figure is more than double."

Jacob, Gary. "MI5 Laptop Is Stolen on Tube." Times (London), 24 Mar. 2000. [http:// www.the-times.co.uk]

A government source has confirmed that on 4 March 2000 a laptop computer carrying coded information on Northern Ireland was stolen from an MI5 intelligence agent at Paddington Underground station in London. The source stated that the "information in the computer does not constitute a threat to national security or individuals." See also, Andrea Babbington, "Search for Spy's Stolen Secrets," The Independent (UK), 24 Mar. 2000.

Smith, Michael. "MI5 Steps Up Security After Theft of Laptop." Telegraph (London), 25 Mar. 2000. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

"MI5 has tightened security procedures after the embarrassing theft of a laptop computer from one of its officers at a London Underground station. But security sources said that there were no plans to stop officers taking sensitive information out of MI5's Millbank headquarters on computers."

O'Connell, Alex. "Top Secret Laptops Go Missing." Times (London), 28 Mar. 2000. [http:// www.the-times.co.uk]

According to a Foreign Office spokeswoman, an MI6 official on 3 March 2000 left a computer, "thought to contain top secret information," in a cab "after a drunken evening in a South London tapas bar." The machine "was recovered on March 16." See also, Kate Watson-Smyth, "Another Secret Service Laptop Goes Missing." The Independent (UK), 28 Mar. 2000.

Smith, Michael. "Spy Lesson No 1: Don't Lose Your Laptop." Telegraph (London), 29 Mar. 2000. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

"Details of MI6 techniques -- 'tradecraft' -- stored in a laptop computer that was left in a taxi were not encrypted and could have been read by anyone."

Macintyre, Ben. "UK Spied for US as Computer Bug Hit." Times (London), 27 Apr. 2000. [http://www.the-times.co.uk]

According to NSA Deputy Director Barbara McNamara, "Britain kept the US supplied with top secret information when America's main intelligence-gathering agency was paralysed by a computer glitch" in late January.

Sunday Times (London). "Top Spy Chief Leads Drive to Gag Press." 21 May 2000. [http://www.the-times.co.uk]

Michael Pakenham "runs a secret committee that is co-ordinating a wide-ranging crackdown on journalists investigating intelligence scandals." Pakenham "is probably the most influential spymaster in Britain. It is no secret that he chairs the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC), which sets priorities for MI5, MI6 and GCHQ."

Evans, Michael. "New MI5 Unit to Crack Criminal Computer Codes." Times (London), 12 Jun. 2000. [http://www.the-times.co.uk]

"A special codebreaking organisation is to be set up inside the headquarters of MI5 to crack encrypted communications and computer discs belonging to suspected organised criminals and terrorists.... It is one of the elements of the Government's Regulation of Investigatory Powers Bill which is to begin the committee stage in the House of Lords [on 12 June 2000]."

Evans, Michael. "MI5 Failed to Warn on KGB." Times (London), 14 Jun. 2000. [http:// www.the-times.co.uk]

A report by the parliamentary Intelligence and Security Committee takes MI5 "to task for failing to seek the advice of the government law officers before deciding against investigating" Melita Norwood, the KGB spy exposed last year.

Smith, Michael. "MI6 Shared KGB Secrets with US Before Britain." Telegraph (London), 14 Jun. 2000. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

According to a report by the parliamentary Intelligence and Security Committee, "[t]he CIA was told within weeks about the Mitrokhin archive." US President George Bush "was apparently told almost immediately. But it was not until six months later, in January 1993, that the Chief of MI6,... told John Major, then Prime Minister."

Cobain, Ian.

1. "The Chatham House Spy." Times (London), 16 Sep. 2000. [http://www.the-times.co.uk]

Stasi's foreign intelligence division, the Hauptverwaltung Aufklärung" (HVA), maintained "a coded index known as Sira, short for System for Information Research of the HVA, intended as a guide to the mountains of paper files. Stasi librarians encrypted the Sira index and transferred it to magnetic tape shortly before the collapse of the communist regime....

"After six years of effort,... the code has now been cracked by a former telephone engineer working for the German Government Commission for the Stasi Archive, the organisation responsible for collating the data gathered by the intelligence agency. The Sira index ... list[s] the titles of intelligence reports from countless Stasi agents around the world, including those that British moles submitted to their handlers at the London embassy."

2. "The Stasi Spy from St James's." Times (London), 16 Sep. 2000. [http:// www.the-times.co.uk]

As revealed by newly decoded files in Berlin, a Stasi spy "worked at the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House) for at least six years during the 1980s, coming into contact with Margaret Thatcher, the Prime Minister, and countless other statesmen. Operating under the codename Eckart, he supplied the Communist leadership in East Germany with a stream of sensitive information from the influential think-tank.... The files show that Eckart also secretly supplied intelligence briefings on forthcoming Royal Navy manoeuvres and Nato planning, and handed over a number of documents apparently stolen from Chatham House."

3. "Archives Reveal Sheer Scale of Stasi Spy Ring." Times (London), 18 Sep. 2000. [http://www.the-times.co.uk]

"The enormous scale of East German espionage in Britain has been laid bare with the decoding of the archives of the secret police, the Stasi. At least 28 highly placed spies worked for the Communist regime during the last days of the Cold War, providing sensitive information on almost every area of British life."

Womack, Sarah. "Fears over Spy Committee that Never Meets." Telegraph (London), 3 Nov. 2000. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

A report from Parliament's Intelligence and Security Committee on 2 November 2000 "warned of the soaring costs of the new GCHQ building"; "called for the greater use of psychological testing of recruits to the intelligence agencies to identify 'adverse character traits'"; "suggest[ed] 'fingerprint technology' to prevent classified information being accessed on stolen Whitehall laptops"; and "rebuked Mr Blair for failing to take a more direct approach to the work of the intelligence agencies. A high-level ministerial committee chaired by the Prime Minister, which sets the intelligence gathering priorities for MI6 and GCHQ, had never met since Labour came to power, the committee said. It had dealt with all its work in correspondence between ministers."

Sunday Times (London). [Introduction to Documents.] 26 Nov. 2000. [http://www.sunday-times.co.uk]

On 26 November 2000, the Sunday Times published "a selection of the information concerning Great Britain obtained from the computer database of East Germany's foreign intelligence service" housed in Berlin at the Gauck commission.

An accompanying report by Stephen Grey and John Goetz, "Target Britain," Sunday Times, 26 Nov. 2000, notes that the information "reveals the full scale of Stasi penetration in Britain. Sources in Whitehall provided sensitive intelligence, including, it seems, prior warning of British support for the American bombing of Libya in 1986. The British Army was infiltrated, the security of military bases in West Germany was compromised and advances in nuclear weapons and submarines were disclosed to East Berlin, which told the KGB in Moscow everything it knew. Informers inside the Labour party also supplied confidential documents....

"MI5 ... is believed to be ready to hand over dossiers on up to 10 individuals who could face prosecution. There are many other names on the British section of the index. Over the past six months The Sunday Times has obtained the codenames of more than 100 agents or contacts in Britain and details of more than 8,000 reports compiled about this country."

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