Interwar Period

1918 - 1929

A - E

Agar, Augustus.

1. Baltic Episode: A Classic of Secret Service in Russian Waters. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1963.

Constantinides: This is an "absorbing,... incredible and instructive" account by the commander of British naval coastal motor boats in Finnish waters in 1919. His mission was as a communications link for the illegal head of British SIS in Russia, Sir Paul Dukes [see Dukes, The Story of "ST 25" (1938)], but exceeded that brief by sinking a Soviet cruiser and participating in naval attacks against Kronstadt. An earlier version of this story is included in Agar's Footprints in the Sea. A current retelling of these events is Harry Ferguson, Operation Kronstadt (2008).

2. Footprints in the Sea. London: Evans Bros., 1959.

For Chambers, this book is a "great adventure story typical of the period. Some of the art of covert military support is learned as one reads about support of counterrevolutionaries in Leningrad. Constantinides notes that in terms of Agar's assignment in support of British SIS activities in Russia in 1919, this is a shorter version of Agar's Baltic Episode. The two accounts "differ on what role the British naval commander, Cowan, played in Agar's decision to attack" the Russian cruiser Oleg. Agar also tells of secret naval command activities in World War II.

Ainsworth, John. "British Security Policy in Ireland, 1920-1921." Australian Journal of Irish Studies 1 (2001): 176-190.

In 1921, British Prime Minister Lloyd George agreed to negotiations with Sinn Fein. This resulted from the British failure to deliver on Home Rule and from a failure "to develop any form of security policy." Absent such, "a series of security measures was put in place by the British authorities in a vain attempt to curb the nationalist campaign.... What they actually achieved ... was an increase in the levels of violence and insecurity in Ireland, until the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921 passed responsibility for all but the six counties ... to the Provisional Government of the new Irish Free State."

Andrew, Christopher. "British Intelligence and the Breach with Russia in 1927." Historical Journal 25 (1982): 957-964.

Andrew, Christopher. "The British Secret Service and Anglo-Soviet Relations in the 1920s. Part I: From the Trade Negotiations to the Zinoviev Letter." The Historical Journal 20 (Sep. 1977): 673-706.

Bar-Joseph, Uri. Intelligence Intervention in the Politics of Democratic States: The United States, Israel, and Britain. University Park, PA: Penn State Press, 1995.\

Clark comment: Bar-Joseph analyzes four case studies of what he designates "intelligence intervention" in politics: the 1961 Bay of Pigs episode; the 1954 Israeli "Unfortunate Business" or "Lavon Affair"; and the 1920 "Henry Wilson" and 1924 "Zinoviev Letter" affairs in Britain. The author's comparative approach may prove to be heavy going for the casual reader, but the politicization issue is certainly one that deserves serious study. However, as Brody, PSQ 111.3, observes, the intervention in the Lavon and Wilson affairs was at least arguably "as much by the military as by intelligence."

According to Wirtz, APSR 90.1, the "tension created by th[e] effort to offer timely estimates while overcoming incentives to pander to policymakers ... serves as a point of departure for Uri Bar-Joseph's comparative study." He "is especially interested in situations in which intelligence agencies spiral out of control and undertake unauthorized activities that overstep policy bounds." The book's "potential contribution ... to developing a theory of civil-intelligence relations, however, is limited by several shortcomings in execution and conception." Nevertheless, this "ambitious book ... does a fine job in identifying several factors which affect the willingness and ability of intelligence officials to place their preferences into the policy arena."

Warren, Surveillant 4.3, declares that "this book is mandatory reading" for serious students of intelligence: "Bar-Joseph sets the stage historically and then fits his argument onto the stage with logic and even wit." Writing in the CIRA Newsletter, Fall 1996, Warren adds that this is "an important contribution to the continuing dialogue on the politicization of intelligence and intelligence organizations." Stafford, I&NS 11.2, judges the book to be "impressively researched and written." The work "is most likely to provoke discussion through its argument that at the root of the abuses [the author] describes lies insufficient separation between intelligence and politics."

For Clutterbuck, Political Studies 44.4, Bar-Joseph "gives an excellent analysis of how these abuses of power occurred and argues that a high degree of professionalism in the intelligence services is as important as effective political control in preventing them." Friedman, Parameters, Summer 1997, finds that "Intelligence Intervention is presented in a detailed but often humorous manner that makes for an entertaining as well as an educational experience."

Denniston, Robin. "Diplomatic Intercepts in Peace and War: Chanak 1922." Diplomacy & Statecraft 11, no. 1 (2000): 241-256.

Dukes, Paul [Sir]. The Story of "ST 25": Adventure and Romance in the Secret Intelligence Service in Red Russia. London: Cassell, 1938.

According to Constantinides, "Dukes was the British SIS representative in the Soviet Union in 1918-1919," and this book "is the exciting and hair-raising story of Dukes's life of hide and seek in the USSR." See also, Augustus Agar, Footprints in the Sea (1959) and Baltic Episode (1963). Agar commanded the British naval unit charged with running couriers in and out of the Soviet Union during the same timeframe. A current retelling of these events is Harry Ferguson, Operation Kronstadt (2008).

Egerton, George. "Diplomacy, Scandal, and Military Intelligence: The Craufurd-Stuart Affair and Anglo-American Relations, 1918-20." Intelligence and National Security 2, no. 4 (Oct. 1987): 110-134.

The author argues that this diplomatic incident played "a major role in the seminal events which transpired in Anglo-American relations and Washington politics in 1919." See also, Maechling, "Scandal in Wartime Washington: The Craufurd-Stuart Affair of 1918." IJI&C 4.3 (Fall 1990): 357-370.

Everest-Phillips, Max. "Colin Davidson's British Indian Intelligence Operations in Japan 1915-23 and the Demise of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance." Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 5 (Oct. 2009): 674-699.

Davidson was "the British Raj's first intelligence officer in Japan." As such, "he was the first British official to run the intelligence agents in Japan who provided the evidence of covert Japanese support to Indian extremists which fatally undermined the Anglo-Japanese Alliance."

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