(Pre-World War I Materials)

Sf - Z

Sheffy, Yigal. "British Intelligence and the Middle East, 1900-1918: How Much Do We Know?" Intelligence and National Security 17, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 33-52.

Until World War I, "almost no institutionalized British intelligence agency functioned in the region on a permanent basis." The coming of the war "completely altered the picture." There are sufficient primary sources available to allow serious study within a broad context of the functioning of the British intelligence apparatus in the Middle East during the first two decades of the 20th century. However, "available evidence remains obscure and fragmentary with regard to the inner mechanism of the system."

Sheffy, Yigal. "Une convergence d'intérêts collaboration entre les services secrets français et britanniques au Levant pendant la Première Guerre mondiale." In De Bonaparte à Balfour: La France, L'Europe occidentale et la Palestine, 1799-1917, eds. Dominique Trimbur and Ran Aaronson, 89-107. Paris: CNRS Editions, 2001.

Siegel, Jennifer L. "Training Thieves: The Instruction of 'Efficient Intelligence Officers' in Pre-1914 Britain." In Intelligence and Statecraft: The Use and Limits of Intelligence in International Society, eds. Jennifer L. Siegel and Peter J. Jackson, 127-138. New York: Praeger, 2005.

Sloan, Geoff. "Dartmouth, Sir Mansfield Cumming and the Origins of the British Intelligence Community." Intelligence and National Security 22, no. 2 (Apr. 2007): 298-305.

The author suggests that the process of institutionalization that led to intelligence becoming an integral part of the British government was linked to the "education and training" that three of the early leaders of British intelligence -- Mansfield Smith (Cumming), Hugh Sinclair, and William Hall -- received at the naval training facility at Dartmouth.

Smith, Bradley F. "The Birth of SIS: A Newly Released Document." Intelligence and National Security 13, no. 2 (Summer 1998): 183-189.

Smith provides brief background and commentary on the newly released "record of the second session of the 1909 Sub-Committee on Intelligence (of the Committee of Imperial Defence)" with regard to the formation of the Secret Intelligence Service. The document itself is reproduced at pages 185-189.

Smith, G.R. "Royalist Secret Agents at Dover during the Commonwealth." Historical Studies: Australia & New Zealand 12 (1967): 477-490.

Royal Historical Society Database places the period covered as 1625-1675.

Smith, Geoffrey. Royalist Agents, Conspirators and Spies: Their Role in the British Civil Wars, 1640-1660. Farnham: Ashgate, 2011.

Hutton, I&NS 26.6 (Dec 2011), says this book "both fills out our knowledge of the age and events concerned and augments the history of espionage and secret diplomacy."

Sparrow, Elizabeth.

1. Secret Service: British Agents in France 1792-1815. London: Boydell & Brewer, 1999.

Crossland, Sunday Times (London), 20 Feb. 2000, notes that the author brings "impressive scholarship" to her work (such as, tracking down "a secret-service archive tucked away in the vaults of the old Public Record Office ... for nearly 200 years"). However, she "too often allows her research to get in the way of a good story."

For Romans, I&NS 16.3, this is an "invaluable overview," with the author reaching beyond the limits of the subtitle to cover the operations of British agents "from the Baltics to the Middle East and against both the Revolution and Napoleon." Although Sparrow's "tendency to include superfluous material can make the narrative impenetrable" and "some ... attributions should be viewed with caution," her "identification of numerous operatives and the webs along which their information flowed has rendered a tremendous service to historians of this period."

2. "Secret Service under Pitt's Administrations, 1792-1806." History 83 (1998): 280-294.

Spiers, Edward M. "Intelligence and Command in Britain's Small Colonial Wars of the 1890s." Intelligence and National Security 22, no. 5 (Oct. 2007): 661-681.

The author reviews the lessons from two campaigns -- Sudan (1896-1899) and South Africa (1899-1902). "Intelligence may not have decided the outcome in either of these conflicts but it certainly affected command decisions, tactical choices, and the evolution of British operations in the face of new conditions of warfare."

Téllez Alarcia, Diego. "La misión secreta de D. Ricardo Wall en Londres (1747-1748)" [The secret mission of Don Ricardo Wall in London (1747-1748)]. Brocar: Cuadernos de investigación histórica 24 (2000): 49-72.

Thompson, Neville. "The Continental System as a Sieve: The Disappearance of Benjamin Bathurst in 1809." International History Review 24, no. 3 (2002): 528-557.

Bathurst was an English diplomat who disappeared in Prussia in 1809. See also, Michael Mason, "Benjamin Bathurst: The Case of the Missing Diplomat, 1809," Biography 14.3 (Summer 1991): 205-221.

Tombs, Robert and Isabelle. That Sweet Enemy: The French and British from the Sun King to the Present. London: Heinemann, 2006.

Bell, I&NS 23.3 (Jun. 2008), finds that "[s]pecialists in intelligence will find much that is directly relevant to their interests" in this "lively and clear" work that "is a pleasure to read."

Underdown, David. Royalist Conspiracy in England, 1649-60. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1960. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1971.

Urban, Mark. The Man Who Broke Napoleon's Codes. New York: HarperCollins, 2001.

Brooks, NIPQ 19.1/2, says that this "history of the Peninsula campaign ... is engagingly written and provides unique insights into Wellington's strengths and ... weaknesses. The story is woven around the [cryptologic] contributions" of Lt. Col. George Scovell. For Goulden, Washington Times, 7 Dec. 2003, and Intelligencer 14.1, this is an "astounding work of historical research... [N]ot a single historain or biographer has addressed the significance" of the work of Scovell to Wellington's victories. This is "[a] good read, even for those of us who are happily ignorant of the mechanics of code breaking."

According to Kruh, Cryptologia 26.4, the author "chronicles Wellington's campaigns against the French from the battle of Corunna in 1809 to the 1815 victory at Waterloo, showing how Scovell's decoding of enemy communications was pivotal to Napoleon's defeat. This is an excellent book about a little known code breaker who helped to change the face of history."

Vola, Giorgio. "The Revd. J. B. Stouppe's Travels in France in 1654 as Cromwell's Secret Agent." Proceedings of the Huguenot Society of Great Britain and Ireland 27, no. 4 (2001): 509-526.

Wade, Stephen. Empire and Espionage: Spies and the Zulu War. Barnsley, UK: Pen & Sword, 2010.

Peake, Studies 55.2 (Jun. 2011), notes that Wade emphasizes "the use and misuse of scouts and spies, the personalities involved, the communications employed, and the role of the media in reporting the conflict to London." It is "the only book on this topic, and it is valuable for that reason alone. But it has a major defect. Throughout, names, events, and locations are mentioned but not otherwise identified.... Thus, a reader without knowledge of the Anglo-Zulu War will find the book bumpy going."

Watson, Vera. "Spy in the Committee of Public Safety." History Today 9 (Oct. 1959): 672-680.

Calder: "Discusses the British penetration of the French Committee of Public Safety.... Executions were held to clean out the spies, but the espionage continued."

Wharam, Alan. Treason: Some Famous English Treason Trials. Wolfeboro Falls, NH: Alan Sutton Publishing, 1995. Stroud, UK: Phoenix Mill, 1995.

Surveillant 4.3: "Famous treason trials from the Earl of Essex to 'Lord Haw Haw' in 1946."

Whitehead, Julian. Cavalier & Roundhead Spies: Intelligence in the Civil War and Commonwealth. Barnsley, UK: Pen & Sword, 2009.

Peake, Studies 54.4 (Dec. 2010), and Intelligencer 18.2 (Winter-Spring 2011), notes that this work describes "the intelligence battles beyween the Royalist cavaliers, who wanted to regain power, and their republican opponents -- the Roundheads -- who fought to keep it.... Cavalier & Roundhead Spies is rich in British historical detail and brings to light the key role of intelligence in government and the historical importance of techniques that are basic practices to this day."

Winstone, H.V.F. The Illicit Adventure: The Story of Political and Military Intelligence in the Middle East, 1898-1926. London: Cape, 1982. Frederick, MD: UPA, 1982.

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