(Pre-World War I Materials)

P - Se

Paola, Pietro di. "The Spies Who Came in from the Heat: The International Surveillance of the Anarchists in London." European History Quarterly 37, no. 2 (2007): 189-215.

Covers the period from 1870 to 1914.

Parmelee, Lisa Ferraro. "Printers, Patrons, Readers, and Spies: Importation of French Propaganda in late Elizabethan England." Sixteenth Century Journal 25 (1994): 853-72.

Peacey, Jason. "Cromwellian England: A Propaganda State?" History 91, no. 302 (2006): 176-199.

Plowden, Alison. The Elizabethan Secret Service. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991.

Surveillant 1.5: "Tells of the early English intelligence service as it was developed by Sir Francis Walsingham."

Pocock, Tom. The Terror before Trafalgar: Nelson, Napoleon and the Secret War. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2005.

From publisher: "Drawing on diaries, letters, and newspapers, Tom Pocock provides a wonderful picture of the years 1801-5, and of the people caught up in these unique events: Nelson blockading the French at sea for two years while his beloved Emma Hamilton waited at home; Jane Austen and her naval brothers; the admirals, generals, and politicians on both sides; and perhaps most interesting of all, those lesser-known men such as Congreve, Moreau, and Pichegru, who were responsible for a new kind of warfare."

Popplewell, Richard J.

1. Intelligence and Imperial Defence: British Intelligence and the Defence of the Indian Empire, 1904-1924. London: Frank Cass, 1995.

Surveillant 4.1: The British "were able to defeat the Indian revolutionaries only by developing a complex intelligence network on a global scale."

2. "The Surveillance of Indian Revolutionaries in Great Britain and on the Continent, 1903-14." Intelligence and National Security 3, no. 1 (Jan. 1988): 56-76.

Porter, Bernard.

1. The Origins of the Vigilant State: The London Metropolitan Police Special Branch before the First World War. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1987.

Petrow, I&NS 3.4, lauds this book as "exemplary in its wide research, close attention to context, lucid style and willingness to tackle large issues and to speculate on limited evidence."

2. Plots and Paranoia: A History of Political Espionage in Britain, 1790-1988. London: Unwin Hyman, 1989. London: Routledge, 1992

Clark comment: The paranoia in the text of this book, if not in the title, is the author's, who equates state security with an oppressive and repressive regime. Little consideration is given to the context within which modern security concerns exist. However, his discussion of the years prior to World War I is worth reading.

Surveillant 2.6 sees Plots and Paranoia as a "[d]etailed, scholarly history." In some ways, this is "an admirable and important book; however, it has some serious limitations, or rather its author does, stemming from his self-admitted, deep-seated prejudices against the concepts of intelligence and state security." To Popplewell, I&NS 6.1, Porter's "research is excellent, and the book is packed with stimulating, often provocative observations." Nevertheless, his strongest arguments about the repressiveness of the modern British state "revolve around the 'Wilson plot' which Peter Wright has now admitted was a fabrication."

Porter, Patrick. "Military Orientalism? British Observers of the Japanese Way of War, 1904-1910." War & Society 26, no. 1 (2007): 1-25.

Potter, David. Foreign Intelligence and Information in Elizabethan England: Two English Treatises on the State of France, 1580-1584. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Prestwich, J. O. "Military Intelligence under the Norman and Angevin Kings," In Law and Government in Medieval England and Normandy: Essays in Honour of Sir James Holt, eds. George Garnett and John Hudson, 1-30. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Proctor, Tammy M. "Family Ties in the Making of Modern Intelligence." Journal of Social History 39, no. 2 (2005).

Royal Historical Society Database: "Vetting of prospective officers and the use of family connections," 1909-1919.

Read, Conyers. Mr. Secretary Walsingham and the Policy of Queen Elizabeth. 3 vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1925. London: Clock and Rose Press, 2003.

Renaut, F. P. Le secret service de l'Amirauté britannique au temps de la Guerre d'Amérique, 1776-1783, d'après des documents retrouvés dans les Archives Britanniques. [The British Admiralty's secret service at the time of the American War, 1776-1783, according to documents found in the British Archives] (L'espionnage naval au 18e siècle, 1). Paris: 1936.

Richardson, W.A.R. "An Elizabethan Pilot's Charts (1594): Spanish Intelligence Regarding the Coasts of England and Wales and the End of the XVIth Century." Journal of Navigation 53, no. 2 (2000): 313-327.

Richings, Mildred Gladys. Espionage: The Story of the Secret Service of the English Crown. London: Hutchinson, 1935.

In a review of Michael Smith, Six..., Peake, Studies 54.4 (Dec. 2010), notes that "Richings describes 600 years of espionage and security operations, ending in 1760." (27/fn. b) A Royal Historical Society Database note states, "Since the Plantagenets. Also published in French, Paris, 1935."

Rogers, Pat. "[Daniel] Defoe's Distribution Agents and Robert Harley." English Historical Review 121 (2006): 146-161.

Romans, M. "Eyes in the Hills: Intelligence during the Operations at Alcantara, May 1809." In Wellington Studies, Volume 1, ed. Christopher Michael Woolgar, 164-188. Southampton: Hartley Institute, University of Southampton, 1996.

Rowland, John Kenneth. "General Thomas Gage, the Eighteenth-Century Literature of Military Intelligence, and the Transition from Peace to Revolutionary War, 1774 to 1775." Historical Reflections/Réflexions Historiques 32, no. 3 (2006): 503-521.

Seligmann, Matthew S.

1. Spies in Uniform: British Military and Naval Intelligence on the Eve of the First World War. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Stevenson, I&NS 21.6 (Dec. 2006), comments that "[t]his book fills a very significant gap in our knowledge of British policy towards Germany" before World War I. The focus is on "the military and naval attachés in Berlin between 1900 and 1914." The author's "lucidly constructed presentation is rich in detail." For Boghardt, DIJ 16.1 (2007), this is "a fine study of a hitherto underappreciated intelligence provider to the British government.... [It] is highly recommended to anyone interested in Anglo-German relations, pre-World War I intelligence, and the role of service attachés in the intelligence gathering process."

2. "A View From Berlin: Colonel Frederick Trench and the Development of British Perceptions of German Aggressive Intent, 1906–1910." Journal of Strategic Studies 23, no. 2 (2000).

From abstract: Trench was British military attaché in Berlin from 1906 to 1910. "At this time, the British Army ... had to rely heavily on the reports of military attachés for information about their continental rivals. Trench, who believed that Germany planned to wage war against Britain..., was the main source of data on the German Army.... [T]his essay posits that Trench's views contributed to the growing British perception of a German threat, a perception that did much to influence British strategic planning in this period."

3. ed. Naval Intelligence from Germany: The Reports of the British Naval Attachés in Berlin, 1906-1914. Navy Records Society no. 152. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007.

According to Bönker, H-Soz-u-Kult, H-Net Reviews [http://www.h-net.org], Jun. 2008, there are 222 of these reports included in this "extremely useful collection of primary documents meant to provide insight into British thinking about Germany and its navy during the Anglo-German naval arms race before World War I."

Seth, Ronald. The Spy in Silk Breeches: The Story of Montagu Fox, 18th Century Admiralty Agent Extraordinary. London: Frewin, 1968. [Chambers]

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