(Pre-World War I Materials)

M - P

MacDonald, Alasdair. "Did Intelligence Matter? Espionage in Later Medieval Anglo-Scottish Relations." In  Intelligence, Statecraft and International Power: Historical Studies XXV, eds. Eunan O'Halpin, Robert Armstrong, and Jane Ohlmeyer, 3-16. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2006.

Maffeo, Steven E. Most Secret and Confidential: Intelligence in the Age of Nelson. Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 2000. London: Chatham, 2000.

Bath, NIPQ, Summer 2001, recommends Maffeo's work. The author "illustrates the role of the commander as an intelligence officer through examples drawn mainly from the life of Lord Nelson and focusing on his use of intelligence against the Danish fleet in the Battle of Copenhagen in 1801 and against Napoleon's French Mediterranean forces in the Battle of the Nile in 1798."

For Meilinger, Aerospace Power Journal (Winter 2000), "one of the more enlightening discussions" was the author's "description of how sparse and small the typical commander's staff was and, therefore, how personality-dependent ... intelligence operations were at the close of the eighteenth century." He concludes that Most Secret and Confidential "is a fascinating and rewarding account."

Brooks, Studies 11 (Fall-Winter 2001) and NIPQ 18.2/3, calls this an "exquisitely researched and documented book.... Although scholarly, [it] is engagingly written, and the subject will fascinate anyone who has an abiding interest in the role of intelligence in support of command and, indeed, the role of intelligence in shaping history."

Manning, Stephen. "Learning the Trade: Use and Misuse of Intelligence during the British Colonial Campaigns of the 1870s." Intelligence and National Security 22, no. 5 (Oct. 2007): 644-660.

The focus here is on the Red River Campaign (1870) in Canada, the Ashanti war (1873-1874) in modern day Ghana, and the Zulu war (1879). In each instance, the commanders had limited information about the terrain over which they would be fighting; and they had to establish their own networks to keep up with the enemy.

Marquis, Hugues. "L'espionnage britannique et la fin de l'Ancien Régime" [British espionage and the end of the Ancien Régime]. Histoire, économie et société 17 (1998): 261-276.

Marshall, Alan. The "Ruffian's Wage": Intelligence and Espionage in the Reign of Charles II, 1660-1685. Cambridge Studies in Early Modern British History Series. London & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Forster, I&NS 11.1, calls the book "a pioneering, well-organized and fully documented study of the development of the intelligence system, its approach, mechanics and activities.... He concludes that the regime's intelligence system 'performed fairly efficiently,' and that it became increasingly acceptable as a legitimate part of the State's business."

According to Surveillant 4.4/5, the author shows that the Restoration regime operated an intelligence system using networks on both the local and international levels. "The careers of a number of spies employed by the regime are examined through a series of detailed case studies." Loomie, AHR 101.3, finds Marshall's work to be "carefully researched and well-written"; this is "pioneering research on a controversial subject." Kruh, Cryptologia 19.3, agrees, calling the book an "erudite history and analysis," the "1,399 footnotes and comprehensive bibliography" of which "are testimony to its scholarship."

Mason, Michael. "Benjamin Bathurst: The Case of the Missing Diplomat, 1809." Biography 14, no. 3 (Summer 1991): 205-221.

Bathurst was an English diplomat who disappeared in Prussia in 1809. See also, Neville Thompson, "The Continental System as a Sieve: The Disappearance of Benjamin Bathurst in 1809," International History Review 24.3 (2002): 528-557.

McEldowney, J. F. "Legal Aspects of the Irish Secret Service Fund, 1793-1833." Irish Historical Studies 25, no. 98 (1986): 129-137.

Mitchell, Harvey. The Underground War Against Revolutionary France: The Missions of William Wickham, 1794-1800. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965.

Constantinides calls this an "excellent study of political warfare and subversion that can be read with profit because of the modern parallels to be drawn." This is a scholarly work, with a good bibliography.

Moran, Christopher R., and Robert Johnson. "In the Service of Empire: Imperialism and the British Spy Thriller, 1901-1914." Studies in Intelligence 54, no. 2 (Jun. 2010): 1-18.

An interesting look at the impact of British spy fiction on pre-World War I policies.

Morris, L.P. "British Secret Service Activity in Khomssan, 1887-1908." Historical Journal 27 (1984): 657-675.

Morton, James. "Spy Fever." Military Illustrated 238 (Mar. 2008): 16-23.

This is a light-weight article that walks through a number of German "spies" arrested in Britain prior to World War I, as well British spies working in Germany.

Mullins, Robert E. "New Ways of Thinking: The Intelligence Function and Strategic Calculations in the Admiralty, 1882-1889." Intelligence and National Security 15, no. 3 (Autumn 2000): 77-97.

"Due primarily to the innovative thinking of Captain W.H. Hall, the intelligence function developed gradually from an ad hoc standing committee to a specialized department with an expansive portfolio that extended to force planning and strategy development."

Munch-Petersen, Thomas. Defying Napoleon: How Britain Bombarded Copenhagen and Seized the Danish Fleet in 1807. Stroud, UK: Sutton, 2007.

Beard, I&NS 26.4 (Aug. 2011), says this "well-written, well-documented" book "tells a complicated story of espionage, disinformation, diplomatic manoeuvring and military action involving Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, Denmark and France."

Murdoch, R. K. "Intelligence Reports of British Agents in the Long Island Sound Area, 1814-15." American Neptune 29 (1969): 187-198.

Murphy, Elaine. "Intelligence, the English Navy and Ireland during the 1640s." In Intelligence, Statecraft and International Power: Historical Studies XXV, eds Eunan O’Halpin, Robert Armstrong, and Jane Ohlmeyer, 35-47. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2006.

Nicholl, Charles. The Reckoning: The Murder of Christopher Marlowe. London: Jonathan Cape, 1992. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1992.

According to Kruh, Cryptologia 18.4, the author ties Marlowe and the three men who dined with him on the night of his murder to covert intelligence work. He has written "a highly literate and fascinating tour of Elizabethan England with its familiar historical figures playing a role in this extraordinary spy story."

O'Carroll, Helen. "William Melville -- Spymaster." Kerry Magazine 18 (2008).

Born in Ireland, Melville joined the London Metropolitan Police in 1872 and in 1883 joined the Special Irish Branch. By 1900, he was a Superintendant, but "retired" in 1903. In actuality, Melville had joined the War Office's Directorate of Military Operations as an agent controller. When the Secret Service Bureau was established in 1909, he became its chief detective. [Note: There are no sources given for this article.]

O'Halpin, Eunan.

1. "Long Fellow, Long Story: MI5 and de Valera." Irish Studies in International Affairs 14 (2003): 185-203.

2. "The Secret Service Vote and Ireland, 1868-1922." Irish Historical Studies 23 (1983), 348-353.

Ó Siochrú, Micheál. "English Military Intelligence in Ireland during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms." In  Intelligence, Statecraft and International Power: Papers Read before the 27th Irish Conference of Historians Held at Trinity College, Dublin, 19-21 May 2005, eds. Eunan O'Halpin, Robert Armstrong, Jane H. Ohlmeyer, 48-64. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2006.

Royal Historical Society Database: Estimated period covered: 1642 - 1651.

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