(Pre-World War I Materials)

E - F

Edwards, Peter. Delusion: The True Story of Victorian Superspy Henri Le Caron. Toronto: Key Porter, 2008.

For Peake, Studies 54.1 (Mar. 2010), this work "adds much history of the Fenian movement and its struggles. In addition, [the author] corrects the many embellishments found in Le Caron's 1892 memoir.... Delusion is a well-documented corrective to an intriguing spy story." See Henri Le Caron [pseud., Thomas Miller Beach], Twenty-Five Years in the Secret Service: The Recollections of a Spy (London: Heinemann, 1892; 10th ed. London: EP Publishing, 1974). See also, J.A. Cole, Prince of Spies: Henri Le Caron (London: Faber & Faber, 1984).

Canadian Security Intelligence Service. "History" [http://www.csis-scrs.gc.ca/hstrrtfcts/index-eng.asp]: "Henri Le Caron, born Thomas Miller Beach, was a Civil War veteran recruited by the British in 1867 to spy on the Fenian movement in the United States. Le Caron was arguably one of the most successful covert agents to work for the Canadian government."

Ellis, Kenneth. The Post Office in the Eighteenth Century: A Study in Administrative History. London: Oxford University Press, 1958.

Pforzheimer: The "'secret office' of the 18th century British post office" intercepted mail and deciphered codes. Official deciphering remained in the hands of one family for over 100 years.

Exelby, James. "The Secret Service Major and the Invasion of Egypt." History Today 56, no. 11 (Nov. 2006): 40-41.

The author "unearths the activities of a forgotten British spy [Maj. Alexander Bruce Tulloch] whose documents and memoir provide a fascinating insight into the circumstances surrounding the British occupation of Egypt" in 1882.

Ferguson, Thomas G. British Military Intelligence, 1870-1914: The Development of a Modern Intelligence Organization. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1984.

Pforzheimer: "This first scholarly history of a modern military intelligence department to be published in the United States is an excellent reference source, well annotated and indexed, with an extensive bibliography."

Ferreiro, Larrie D. "Spies versus Prizes: Technology Transfer between Navies in the Age of Trafalgar." Mariner's Mirror 93, no. 1 (2007): 16-27.

Ferris, John.

1. "Before 'Room 40': The British Empire and Signals Intelligence, 1898-1914." Journal of Strategic Studies 12, no. 4 (Dec. 1989): 431-457.

According to Sexton, this article discusses Britain's "lack of preparation to exploit the potential value of Signals Intelligence prior to World War I."

2. "Intelligence and Diplomatic Signalling during Crises: The British Experience of 1877-78, 1922 and 1938." Intelligence and National Security 21, no. 5 (Oct. 2006): 675-696.

The author of these "case studies of playing chicken" provides some intriguing thoughts. These include: "The strategic literature assumes crises are there to be managed. In fact, they are something to survive.... Crises cause systems failures on all sides.... Crises are dominated by emotion, factionalization, missed signals and unintended consequences."

Fisher, John. "On the Baghdad Road: On the Trail of W.J. Childs. A Study in British Near Eastern Intelligence and Historical Analysis, c.1900-1930.". Archives 24, no. 101 (1999): 53-70.

Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Library and Records Department. Historical Branch. "My Purdah Lady": The Foreign Office and the Secret Vote, 1782-1909. History Notes No. 7. London: LRD/FCO, 1994.

Aldrich, I&NS 10.4: This is an "essay on the important but neglected subject of the financing and resourcing of British secret service from the Civil List Act of 1782 through the beginning of modern secret service in 1909."

Foreman, Amanda. A World on Fire: Britain's Crucial Role in the American Civil War. New York: Random House, 2011. A World on Fire: An Epic History of Two Nations Divided. London: Allen Lane/Penguin, 2011.

Mead, FA 90.5 (Sep.-Oct. 2011), finds the author's "instructive history of the American Civil War from the perspective of the United Kingdom" to be "a fascinating addition to the literature on the war." For Goulden, Washington Times, 20 Jun. 2011, and Intelligencer 18.3 (Summer-Fall 2011), this work "is massive but never boring." The author "is one of the more exciting historians I have encountered in years.... [S]he is a historian who views the tragedy of the war with objectivity, and whose narrative contains a valuable commentary on the Civil War as seen through non-American eyes."

To Wheatcroft, NYT, 30 Jun. 2011, "this thoroughly researched and well-written but exceedingly long book" has "one drawback": "The presence of so many Englishmen means that Foreman can too easily slip away from 'Britain's crucial role' to a general history of the war and its every battle." Gallagher, Washington Post, 1 Jul. 2011, comments that "Foreman is largely unconcerned with arcane scholarly debates, writing for an audience of non-specialists drawn to engrossing accounts of major historical events." Her "descriptive gifts show especially well in bringing vividly to life the political and diplomatic worlds of Washington and London."

David, Literary Review, Nov. 2010, says that this work "is nothing less than a tour de force.... At 800 pages this is not a short book, yet the pace never flags as Foreman moves the narrative effortlessly from the killing fields of Antietam to the drawing rooms of London." This is "a significant contribution to the historiography of one of the most written about wars." Burlingame, Wall Street Journal, 25 Jun. 2011, calls this work "well-researched and highly readable.... Foreman does not confine herself to often-chronicled incidents of politics and diplomacy; her scope is broader and her cast of characters much larger."

For McPherson, NYRB, 14 Jul. 2011, "[t]he contribution of A World on Fire lies in its richness of description, vivid writing, and focus on individual personalities, including not only public officials but also (mostly on the British side) a wide variety" of individuals. "Some two hundred people figure with varying degrees of prominence in Foreman's story." Cate, Parameters 42.1 (Spring 2012), says that Foreman "provides an absorbing account of the often neglected British dimension of our sectional struggle." This book is "[d]eftly written and lavishly illustrated with contemporary Punch cartoons and drawings from American and British newspapers."

Fox, John. The King's Smuggler: Jane Whorwood, Secret Agent to Charles I. Stroud, UK: The History Press, 2010.

From publisher: "Jane Whorwood was one of Charles I's closest confidantes. The wife of an Oxfordshire squire, when the court moved to Oxford in 1642, at the start of the Civil War, she helped the royalist cause by spying for the king, and smuggling gold.... When Charles was held captive by the Parliamentarians, from 1646 to 1649, she organized money, correspondence, several escape attempts, astrological advice, and a ship for him." A brief version of Whorwood's story is John Fox, "Charles I's Secret Agent," BBC History Magazine 11, no. 2 (Feb. 2010): 28-29.

Fraser, Peter. Intelligence of the Secretaries of State and Their Monopoly of Licensed News, 1660-1688. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956.

Constantinides: "The text and the appendices give good details about British intelligence activities of the time."

Franklin, Robert. Private and Secret: The Clandestine Activities of a Nineteenth Century Diplomat. Lewes: Book Guild, 2005.

Royal Historical Society Database: Sir Charles Stuart, baron Stuart de Rothesay; covers period 1801-1845.

Fritz, Paul. "The Anti-Jacobite Intelligence System of the English Ministers, 1715-1745." Historical Journal 16 (1973): 265-289.

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