(Pre-World War I Materials)

A - B

Adams, Robyn. "A Spy on the Payroll? William Herle and the Mid Elizabethan Polity." Historical Research 83, no. 220 (May 2010): 266–280.

From Abstract: A number of men, "largely marginal to the historiography of the period for so long, have now been identified and credited with a role which was fundamental to the smooth operation of the Tudor political system. In this group of men ... is found William Herle, an agent, diplomatic envoy and intelligencer for Elizabeth I's ministers.... Herle's epistolary contribution to the administrative and intelligence bureaux of William Cecil,... Robert Dudley,... and Sir Francis Walsingham reveals the information channels and structures behind the decision-making process of this triumvirate of political heavyweights and their conciliar fraternity."

Alford, Stephen. The Watchers: A Secret History of the Reign of Elizabeth I. London: Allen Lane, 2012.

Peake, Studies 57.2 (Jun. 2013), says the author "does a good job" telling "a story that has been told many times before." However, "his occasional digression into counterfactual history" is "somewhat annoying." In addition, "the system of endnotes is awkward and difficult to use." This work "has not displaced Conyers Read's three volume history of Walsingham as the place to start."

Allen, Matthew.

1. "The Foreign Intelligence Community and the Origins of the Naval Intelligence Department of the Admiralty." Mariner's Mirror 81, no. 1 (Feb. 1995): 65-78.

2. "Rear Admiral Reginald Custance: Director of Naval Intelligence, 1899-1902." Mariner's Mirror 78 (1992): 61-75.

Alsop, J. D. "British Intelligence for the North Atlantic Theatre of the War of Spanish Succession." Mariner's Mirror 77 (1991): 113-118.

Archer, John Michael. Sovereignty and Intelligence: Spying and Court Culture in the English Renaissance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993.

Includes information on Michel Eyquen de Montaigne (1533-1592).

Arthurson, Ian. "Espionage and Intelligence from the Wars of the Roses to the Reformation." Nottingham Medieval Studies 35 (1991): 134-154.

Aubrey, Philip. Mr. Secretary Thurloe. London: Athlone, 1990.

See also, D.L. Hobman, Cromwell's Master Spy: A Study of John Thurloe (London: Chapman & Hall, 1961).

Backscheider, Paula R. "Daniel Defoe and Early Modern Intelligence." Intelligence and National Security 11, no. 1 (Jan. 1996): 1-21.

Defoe "extended the possibilities of counter-insurgency, invented practices that survive to the present day, and earned the reputation of master spy." He was successful as both an intelligence collector and an agent of influence, but "it was as a propagandist that Defoe was most useful and his contributions to the art of intelligence most original."

Baden-Powell, Robert.

1. "Adventures as a Spy." Everybody's 32 (Feb. 1915): 184-192. [Calder]

2. My Adventures as a Spy. London: 1915. Mineola, NY: Dover, 2011. [pb]

Bayly, Christopher Alan.

1. Empire and Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India, 1780-1870. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

MacMillan, AHR 103.4, finds that Bayly's work goes well beyond a discussion of British intelligence and surveillance of their Indian subjects. Rather, this is "a wide-ranging and subtle exploration of systems of knowledge and how these affect, and are affected by, the relations between rulers and ruled." For Durrans, English Historical Review, Nov. 1998, this is an "absorbing and persuasive study" that "offers valuable insights."

2. "Knowing the Country: Empire and Information in India'. Modern Asian Studies 27 (1993): 3-43.

Bennett, Ethan R. "Fidelity and Zeal: The Earl of Sandwich, Naval Intelligence,and the Salvation of Britain, 1763-1779." The Historian 70, no. 4 (2008): 669-696.

John Montagu, 4th earl of Sandwich, 1718-1792.

Black, Jeremy.

1. "British Intelligence and the Mid-Eighteenth Century Crisis." Intelligence and National Security 2, no. 2 (Apr. 1987): 209-229.

The author's goal is "to place British intelligence activities in the context of British foreign policy in the period and to indicate important areas of activity that require more attention." He looks at postal interception operations, overseas espionage, and the use of information from friendly diplomats, and concludes that "it is clear that Britain used the full range of available methods for the obtaining of information."

2. "Eighteenth-Century Intercepted Despatches." Journal of the Society of Archivists 11 (1990): 138-143.

3. "Intelligence and the Emergence of the Information Society in Eighteenth-Century Britain." In The History of Information Security: A Comprehensive Handbook, eds. Karl de Leeuw and J.A. Bergstra. 369-380. Amsterdam and London: Elsevier, 2007.

Bossy, John. Under the Molehill: An Elizabethan Spy Story. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press, 2001.

Collinson, London Review of Books 23.13 (5 Jul. 2001), says that the author's "ingenious explorations [have] established him as one of the most cerebrally motivated and engaged of all historians of the early modern period."

Buckland, Charles Stephen. "Un espion hollandais à la solde de l'Angleterre 1811-1813" [A Dutch spy in the pay of England 1811-1813]. Revue des études napoléoniennes 33 (1924): 182-99. [Royal Historical Society Database]

Budiansky, Stephen. Her Majesty's Spymaster: Elizabeth I, Sir Francis Walsingham, and the Birth of Modern Espionage. New York: Viking, 2005.

Jardine, Washington Post, 14 Aug. 2005, rips this work: "All doublet and hose and swashbuckling machismo, written in a breathless, archaic style reminiscent of historians of 50 years ago, Budiansky's book panders unashamedly to our fondness for nostalgia." The reviewer, an "academic who specializes in the Tudor period," finds it "hard to take Her Majesty's Spymaster seriously as history, but it is written in a racy, popular style that may capture the imagination of the general reader." Clark comment: Guess I will have to read this one.

For Bath, NIPQ 22.1 (Jan. 2006), this "is sound intelligence history, well and interestingly told." Similarly, Kruh, Cryptologia 30.2 (Apr. 2006), comments that "[w]ith the taut narrative of a spy novel,... Budiansky brings thrillingly to life ... Walsingham's intricate spy network."

Peake, Studies 50.1 (Mar. 2006), calls Her Majesty’s Spymaster a "splendid little book." As the author describes the events of the times, "it becomes clear that Walsingham developed many of the techniques of intelligence still in use, despite having no prior training in the craft. His skill was based on knowledge of the threat, common sense, and the ability to deal with people discreetly.... Budiansky makes his fascinating life good reading."

To Arpin, NWCR 59.3 (Summer 2006), the author has captured "how Walsingham’s skill in gathering and analyzing information complemented (if not always easily) Elizabeth's talent for political and diplomatic intrigue.... If this book has a fault, it is the lack of discussion on Walsingham's impact on later incarnations of the British secret service." Schwab, IJI&C19.3 (Fall 2006), sees this as "an ambitious and complex work that ... is well-conceived." Nevertheless, "[a]n index would have been beneficial" to this "fine historical study."

Burn, Michael. The Debatable Land: A Study of the Motives of Spies in Two Ages. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1970.

Concerns spycraft in the Elizabethan era. Michael Burn died 3 September 2010. William Grimes, "Michael Burn, Writer and Adventurer, Dies at 97," New York Times, 14 Sep. 2010. Meic Stephens, "Michael Burn Obituary," Guardian, 23 Sep. 2010.

Bywater, Hector C., and H.C. Ferraby. Strange Intelligence: Memoirs of Naval Secret Service. London: Constable, 1931. New York: Richard R. Smith, 1931.

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