Literature from the 1990s

L - Q

Laqueur, Walter A.

1. The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Chapman, IJI&C 14.1, is bothered that to Laqueur "there are no revolutionaries or revolutionary organizations, only terrorists." In addition, the reviewer believes that "skim[ming] lightly over the years 1950-1980 ... is a serious error." However, reviewer and author agree that the threat from terrorists with weapons of mass destruction is significantly less than is often portrayed.

2. "Postmodern Terrorism." Foreign Affairs 75, no. 5 (Sep.-Oct. 1996): 24-36.

Leidig, Michael. "Former Baader-Meinhof Terrorist Is Killed in Shoot-Out with Police." Telegraph (London), 17 Sep. 1999. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

According to Vienna police on 16 September 1999, "Horst Meyer, a former Baader-Meinhof terrorist wanted in connection with the murder of the Deutsche Bank chief Alfred Herrhausen in 1989, has been shot dead and his companion [Andrea Klump] arrested."

Lesser, Ian, et al. Countering the New Terrorism. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1999. [http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monograph_reports/2009/MR989.pdf]

From "Preface": "This book brings together three complementary papers that address trends in international terrorism, the special problem of terrorism in the information age, and how to meet the terrorist challenge to U.S. interests."

Livingstone, Neil C., and David Halevy. Inside the PLO: Covert Units, Secret Funds, and the War Against Israel and the United States. New York: Morrow, 1990.


1. "Could U.S. Harassment of Bin Laden Backfire?" Washington Post, 29 Jul. 1999, A3.

"Osama bin Laden's global terrorist network has been constantly pressured and repeatedly compromised in the year since the fugitive Saudi multimillionaire allegedly masterminded the deadly truck bombings of two U.S. embassies in Africa, according to terrorism experts inside and outside the federal government. But those experts worry that the Clinton administration's focus on bin Laden as the nation's number one terrorist enemy may have raised his profile in the Islamic world and increased the likelihood of attacks by him and his followers."

2. "Has the U.S. Blunted Bin Laden? Yes and No, Terrorist Fighters Say, Describing an Invisible War." Washington Post, 17 Feb. 1999, A4. "U.S. Intelligence Claims Progress against bin Laden." Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 22 Feb. 1999, 16-17.

"Six months after Osama bin Laden allegedly masterminded the truck bombing of two U.S. embassies in east Africa, senior U.S. officials say they have disrupted planned operations by his followers and stayed one step ahead of new threats through aggressive intelligence-gathering and cooperation with foreign authorities."

3. "Where the CIA Wages Its New World War: Counterterrorist Center Makes Many Arrests, Pursues Bin Laden With Aid of FBI, NSA." Washington Post, 9 Sep. 1998, A17. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

""[T]he CIA's Counterterrorist Center created an unusual bin Laden 'station' in 1996 to target the Islamic extremist and disrupt his worldwide terrorist network, intelligence officials say. Since then, the Counterterrorist Center has assisted foreign intelligence and law enforcement in the arrest of 40 alleged terrorist operatives, including numerous bin Laden associates, the officials say. Twenty-one of those arrests have come since June, the officials said."

Long, David E. The Anatomy of Terrorism. New York: The Free Press, 1990.

Marenches, Alexandre de, comte, and David A. Andelman. The Fourth World War: Diplomacy and Espionage in the Age of Terrorism. New York: William Morrow, 1992.

Clark comment: The author was Director-General of the French foreign intelligence service, Service de Documentation Exterieure et de Contre-Espionnage (SDECE), from 1970 to 1981, under Presidents Pompidou and d'Estaing.

Surveillant 2.6 notes that this is an "updated and adapted version of the original work Dans le Secret des Princes, published in 1986 by Editions Stock and signed Alexandre de Marenches and Christine Ockrent. The de Marenches/Ockrent version was reprinted in English in the U.K. under the title The Evil Empire: The Third World War Now. This is an impressive presentation of responses by the Count de Marenches ... to questions posed by journalist Ockrent in a series of interviews."

According to Pierre, FA 71.5 (Sep.-Oct. 1992), the author "tells his many cloak and dagger stories with verve and color," but he "goes off track ... when he looks to the future. He sees the opening skirmishes of a new world war -- between South and North -- the new enemies being terrorists, drug lords and dictators. 'Mutual Assured Destruction' must now be replaced by a doctrine of 'Certain Destruction' of terrorist groups; a 'Decent People's Club' of nations that believe in individual liberty must be created. These extreme views inadvertently cast some doubt on his judgment while running French intelligence."

Valcourt, IJI&C 6.1, adds that de Marenches is "[o]ften referred to as the Henry Kissinger of France." The Fourth World War "combatants are the Northern nations versus the Southern.... The intelligence organizations of the Western nations must be redirected to study the new opposition." The author's "views must be considered seriously."

For Rurarz-Huygens, IJI&C 2.1, "'Dans le secret des princes' is a powerful book." It is both a "political and philosophical statement." The author is "profoundly troubled by the behavior of the 'soft democracies.'" McCormick, I&NS 4.1, concludes that "this is a constructive book which should be read widely by all who care about the future of intelligence and security services."

Medd, Roger, and Frank Goldstein. "International Terrorism on the Eve of a New Millennium." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 20, no. 3 (Jul.-Sep. 1997): 281-316.

Mufson, Steven, and Thomas Lippman, "U.S. Slightly Softens View of Iran." Washington Post, 1 May 1999, A10.

In its annual terrorism report, "Patterns of Global Terrorism," issued on 30 April 1999, the State Department "modestly softened language on Iran ... Whereas last year the State Department called Iran 'the most active state sponsor of terrorism in 1997,' the new report said only that Iran 'in 1998 continued to be involved in the planning and execution of terrorist acts'.... Despite the altered language, Iran was still one of seven governments branded in the report ... as state sponsors of terrorism.... Other countries in that category are Cuba, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Sudan and Syria. The list has not changed since August 1993. Afghanistan would have been included, a senior State Department official said, but it is not considered a functioning state."

Newsweek. "New Evidence Ties Iran to Terrorism." 15 Nov. 1999. [http://newsweek. com]

"[N]ew evidence [has] emerged tying Iranian officials to the truck bomb that killed 241 U.S. Marines in Beirut 16 years ago, as well as to the 1996 bombing of the Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia.... [A] National Security Agency phone tap recorded a Sept. 24, 1983, call from the Iranian ambassador in Syria to his foreign minister, in which the ambassador relayed orders he'd given to Abu Haidar, leader of the Husaini Suicide Forces Movement. The ambassador told Haidar to get weapons from Yasir Arafat's Fatah group to 'undertake an extraordinary operation against the Marines' in Beirut."

Pincus, Walter, and Vernon Loeb. "CIA Blocked Two Attacks Last Year." Washington Post, 11 Aug. 1998, A16. "The CIA's Track Record on Terrorism: At Least Two Plots Were Foiled Last Year, But the Two Embassies Hit Were 'Low-Risk.'" Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 17 Aug. 1998, 20.

"CIA operatives foiled two attacks on U.S. embassies last year [1997] in advanced stages of planning and disrupted three other incipient plots after infiltrating terrorist cells and by monitoring and intercepting electronic communications."

Pope, Laurence. "Department's Efforts to Combat International Terrorism." US Department of State Dispatch 4, no. 17 (26 Apr. 1993): 299-301.

Prince, James. "Is There a Role for Intelligence in Combating Terrorism?" Conflict 9 (1990): 301-318. [Petersen]


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