SPY CASES - UNITED STATES

Alger Hiss and Whittaker Chambers

A - M

 

Barros, James. "Alger Hiss and Harry Dexter White: The Canadian Connection." Orbis 21, no. 3 (Fall 1977): 593-605.

The author argues that Igor Gouzenko, the Russian defector in Canada, had evidence linking Alger Hiss and Harry Dexter White to Soviet espionage activities. See Bruce Craig, "A Matter of Espionage: Alger Hiss, Harry Dexter White and Igor Gouzenko -- The Canadian Connection Reassessed," Intelligence and National Security 15, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 211-224, for a counter-argument with regard to evidence concerning White.

Busch, Francis Xavier. Guilty or Not Guilty?: An Account of the Trials of the Leo Frank Case, the D. C. Stephenson Case, the Samuel Insull Case, the Alger Hiss Case. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1952.

Chambers, Whittaker. Witness. New York: Random House, 1952. London: Deutsch, 1953. [pb] Chicago: Regnery Gateway, 1978.

Cook, Fred J. The Unfinished Story of Alger Hiss. New York: William Morrow, 1958.

From the "Hiss-was-framed" genre.

Craig, Bruce. "A Matter of Espionage: Alger Hiss, Harry Dexter White and Igor Gouzenko -- The Canadian Connection Reassessed." Intelligence and National Security 15, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 211-224.

Abstract: Craig argues that Igor Gouzenko "did not possess a shread of evidence ... that implicated Harry Dexter White in the Soviet [espionage] conspiracy.... Gouzenko's revelations have no relevance or bearing on the espionage case relating to White."

De Toledano, Ralph, and Victor Lasky. The Seeds of Treason: The True Story of the Hiss-Chambers Tragedy. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1950. Rev. ed. Chicago: Regnery, 1962.

Ehrman, John.

1. "The Alger Hiss Case: A Half-Century of Controversy." Studies in Intelligence 10, no. 1 (Winter-Spring 2001): 1-13.

This is an excellent, readable review of the Hiss case and of the debate surrounding it.

2. "The Mystery of 'ALES': Once Again, the Alger Hiss Case." Studies in Intelligence 51, no. 4 (2007): 29-38. [https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/index.html]

Over the years, there have been multiple occasions where authors invented scenarios showing that Hiss was not a spy and then did their best "to prove it through selective use of evidence, bending the facts, or filling in the blanks with unfounded speculation." Like the Kai Bird and Svetlana Chervonnaya effort in April 2007, "none of these alternative narratives holds up to serious examination."

Gay, James Thomas. "The Alger Hiss Spy Case." American History (Jun. 1998). [http://www.historynet.com/ah]

The author presents a synopsis of events in the Hiss spy case. He concludes: "[W]hile the preponderance of evidence" weighs "heavily against Hiss, his unrelenting insistence of innocence will keep the door of doubt ever so slightly ajar."

Hiss, Alger. In the Court of Public Opinion. New York: Knopf, 1957.

Clark comment: This is not so much an autobiography as a defense brief to the court of public opinion. In a review of Hiss' book, Sidney, Hook. "A Fateful Chapter of Our Times," New York Times Book Review, 12 May 1957, 1, 28, rejects Hiss' protestations of innocence.

Jacoby, Susan. Alger Hiss and the Battle for History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.

Greenberg, Washington Post, 31 May 2009, comments that despite the author's "stout ability to resist the biases and thought-formulas of left and right, detachment isn't really what Jacoby is after. Rather, she seems hell-bent on destroying the fallacy that Hiss's well-established guilt somehow justified the mania it fed. A worthy cause it is. After all, conservatives, she reminds us, have exploited such illogic not only in refighting the Red Scare but also in our own day, as Jacoby contends in a final chapter that ranges zestfully if unsystematically over recent battles about loyalty and patriotism. So then, in the end we all have reasons why we don't want to let go of the Cold War."

Lowenthal, John. "Venona and Alger Hiss." Intelligence and National Security 15, no. 3 (Autumn 2000): 98-130.

The author, Alger Hiss' lawyer, argues that the Venona team "employed false premises and flawed comparative logic to reach the desired conclusion that Alger Hiss was the spy Ales, a conclusion psychologically motivated and politically correct but factually wrong.... [This is] a warning to view other Venona product with caution and skepticism."

Eduard Mark, "Who Was 'Venona's' 'Ales'? Cryptanalysis and the Hiss Case," Intelligence and National Security 18, no. 3 (Autumn 2003): 45-72, effectively refutes Lowenthal's reading of Venona Cable No. 1822 and suggests that Cable No. 195 from Moscow to New York adds further support to the case against Hiss.

David Lowenthal and Roger Sandilands, "Eduard Mark on Venona's 'Ales': A Note." Intelligence and National Security 20, no. 3 (Sep. 2005): 509-512, provide a "summary" of a draft response written by John Lowenthal prior to his death. That response concluded "that Mark had refuted neither the facts nor the reasoning presented in his [Lowenthal's] article."

Mark, Eduard. "Who Was 'Venona's' 'Ales'? Cryptanalysis and the Hiss Case." Intelligence and National Security 18, no. 3 (Autumn 2003): 45-72.

The author effectively refutes John Lowenthal, "Venona and Alger Hiss," Intelligence and National Security 15, no. 3 (Autumn 2000): 98-130, who argues that the Venona team "employed false premises and flawed comparative logic to reach the desired conclusion that Alger Hiss was the spy Ales." Mark concludes that Lowenthal's reading of Venona Cable No. 1822 is incorrect and suggests that Cable No. 195 from Moscow to New York adds further support to the case against Hiss.

David Lowenthal and Roger Sandilands, "Eduard Mark on Venona's 'Ales': A Note." Intelligence and National Security 20, no. 3 (Sep. 2005): 509-512, provide a "summary" of a draft response written by John Lowenthal prior to his death. That response concluded "that Mark had refuted neither the facts nor the reasoning presented in his [Lowenthal's] article."

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