L - Z

Marshall, Alex. "Russian Intelligence during the Russo-Japanese War, 1904-05." Intelligence and National Security 22, no. 5 (Oct. 2007): 682-698.

The author finds the roots of the Soviet surveillance state in the reforms instituted in Russia following the Russo-Japanese War.

Monas, Sidney. The Third Section: Police and Society in Russia Under Nicholas I. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1961.

Pforzheimer views The Third Section as an "excellent study ... [that] not only discusses the creation and operations of the famous Third Section, but also analyzes the impact this organization had on 19th century Russian society."

Nikolajewsky, Boris. Aseff the Spy. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1934.

Yevno Azev was a double agent in a large way, working for both Russia's turn-of-the-century revolutionaries and the Czar's Okhrana. See also, Rubenstein, Comrade Valentine: The True Story of Azeff the Spy (1994).

Pipes, Richard. The Degaev Affair: Terror and Treason in Tsarist Russia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003.

According to Unsinger, IJI&C18.2 (Summer 2005), the author covers the transformation of Sergei Degaev from a member of the pre-Russian Revolution "People's Will" terrorist organization to the University of South Dakota's Dr. Alexander Pell.

Plougin, Vladimir. Tr., Gennady Kashkov. Russian Intelligence Services: Volume I: The Early Years. New York: Algora Publishing, 2000.

From advertisement: "Vladimir Plougin is a professor at Moscow State University, where he specializes in medieval Russia.... Drawn from ancient chronicles and preserved documents from Russia, Greece, Byzantium and the Vatican library -- Russia's past is unearthed and examined. His narrative flair gives flavor to the battle scenes of the secret services in Kievan Russia."

Primakov, Evgenii M., ed. Ocherki istorii rossiiskoi vneshnei razvedki: V shesti tomakh. [Studies in the History of Russian Foreign Intelligence: in 6 volumes.] Vol. 1. Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia, 1996.

Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, I&NS 14.1, notes that Volume 1 of this popular "repackaging" of the past of Russian intelligence covers "From Ancient Times to 1917." The book brings together the work of six authors under the editorship of the then-head of the SVR and now former prime minister. While it may make for "diverting bed-time reading," Ocherki "is not necessarily good history, and scholars should approach it with caution.... [O]n the whole, the book is marred by an overly tendentious approach and sloppy scholarship" at a time when "[n]early all the sources necessary ... are now freely accessible."

Rubenstein, Richard E. Comrade Valentine: The True Story of Azeff the Spy -- The Most Dangerous Man in Russia at the Time of the Last Czars. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1994.

Kirkus Reviews, 15 May 1994, comments that although "there is a little too much speculation and less than authoritative reconstruction of Azef's thoughts, this is a persuasive and gripping account of a shadowy but pivotal figure." See also, Nikolajewsky, Aseff the Spy (1934).

Ruud, Charles A., and Sergei A. Stepanov. Fontanka 16: The Tsars' Secret Police. Phoenix Mill, Stroud, UK: Sutton, 1999.

Joes, I&NS 15.3, says that "[t]his informative, balanced, clearly written work with its helpful bibliography should prove of much interest not only to students of intelligence but also to those concerned with the background to the fall of Tsardom."

Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, David H. "Russian Military Intelligence on the Manchurian Front, 1904-05." Intelligence and National Security 11, no. 1 (Jan. 1996): 22-31.

When Russia went to war with Japan in 1904, "St. Petersburg trusted faulty and incomplete assessments of its potential adversary.... The war with Japan was clearly a failure of Russian intelligence.... On the strategic plane, Russian intelligence simply failed adequately to assess the strength of the Japanese Army.... [T]actical intelligence was not much better at keeping generals up to date during the war."

Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, David H. "Russian Intelligence and the Younghusband Expedition to Tibet." In Intelligence and Statecraft: The Use and Limits of Intelligence in International Society, eds. Jennifer L Siegel and Peter J. Jackson, 109-126. New York: Praeger, 2005.

Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, David H. "Tsarist Codebreaking: Some Background and Some Examples." Cryptologia 22, no. 4 (Oct. 1998): 342-353.

This article "provides a brief overview of the development of the Russian Foreign Ministry's black chamber, from its creation in the 18th century to 1917." It includes a discussion of some of the holdings relevant to codebreaking at the Imperial Russian Foreign Ministry's archive (AVPRI).

Schleifman, Nurit. Undercover Agents in the Russian Revolutionary Movement: The SR Party, 1902-1914. London: Macmillan, 1988. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1988.

Barros, I&NS 7.3, finds this to be an "excellent study" on a little-studied subject, "the Okhrana's role during the tumultuous political events that marked the road to the revolutions of 1917."

Sergeev, Evgeny. Russian Military Intelligence in the War with Japan, 1904-05: Secret Operations on Land and at Sea. New York: Routledge, 2008.

Peake, Studies 53.4 (Dec. 2009), finds that this work "uses Russian primary sources that became available after the collapse of the Soviet Union and Japanese sources that have not appeared in English." The author "makes evident why Soviet military intelligence had the upper hand in foreign intelligence in the early years of the Soviet Union. Sergeev has produced a fine history of the intelligence war and the lessons the Soviets learned."

Squire, P. S. The Third Department: The Political Police in the Russia of Nicholas I. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1968.

Pforzheimer says this "is a more in-depth study..., with less social commentary" than Monas' The Third Section. It is recommended "for those seeking a deeper understanding of the traditions and modus operandi of the Tsarist and succeeding Soviet security organizations."

Tamm, Eric Enno. The Horse That Leaps Through Clouds: A Tale of Espionage, the Silk Road and the Rise of Modern China. Berkeley, CA: Counterpoint, 2011.

According to Peake, Studies 56.1 (Mar. 2012) and Intelligencer 19.2 (Summer-Fall 2012), Imperial Russian Army Col. Carl Gustaf Mannerheim (later Finnish president) was tasked in 1906 with undertaking "a secret, overland mission to China to assess its warmaking capability, while making similar judgments about the other countries encountered en route." The author "decided to make the same trip, retracing, as nearly as possible, the original route.... [T]he basic lessons the book teaches are the difficulties of operating undercover in a hostile environment and the value of firsthand observation when one wants to learn about a country."

Vassiliev, Andrei Tikhonovich. The Okhrana: The Russian Secret Police. London: Harrap, 1930. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1930.

Rocca and Dziak note that the author was the last chief of the Tsarist secret service.

Wright, Patricia. "Loris-Melikov: Russia, 1880-1." History Today 24 (Jun. 1974): 413-419.

Calder notes that this article "[m]entions the role of the secret police" in discussing the granting of extraordinary powers to the Russian general to deal with the revolutionary movement in Tsarist Russia.

Zuckerman, Fredric S.

1. "Vladimir Burtsev and the Tsarist Political Police in Conflict, 1907-14." Journal of Contemporary History 12, no. 1 (Jan. 1977): 193-219.

2. "Political Police and the Revolution: The Impact of the 1905 Revolution on the Tsarist Secret Police." Journal of Contemporary History 27, no. 2 (Apr. 1992): 279-300.

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