RUSSIA

Historical

General

A - K

Andrew, Christopher, and Keith Neilson. "Tsarist Codebreakers and British Codes." Intelligence and National Security 1, no. 1 (Jan. 1986): 6-12.

See also, Korostovets, "The Black Cabinet," Contemporary Review 167.3 (1945): 162-165.

Bishop, Patrick. "'Protocols of Zion' Forger Named." Telegraph (London), 19 Nov. 1999. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

The findings of Russian historian Mikhail Lepekhine, published on 18 November 1999 in the French magazine L'Express, identify "Mathieu Golovinski, opportunistic scion of an aristocratic but rebellious family who drifted into a life of espionage and propaganda work," as the author of the infamous anti-Semitic forgery "Protocols of the Elders of Zion." In his lifetime, Golovinski managed to serve both the Tsar and the Bolsheviks. According to Lepekhine, Golovinski wrote the "Protocols" at the end of 1900 or the beginning of 1901.

Deriabin, Peter. Watchdogs of Terror: Russian Bodyguards from the Tsars to the Commissars. New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1972. 2d ed. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1984.

Pforzheimer notes that Deriabin was a "Soviet counterintelligence officer and bodyguard until his defection in 1954.... [He] traces the history of ... internal security from Kievan Rus to ... the 1970's ... [and] shows how the bodyguard system ... has been used as an instrument of terror." This work provides "unusual insights." According to Rocca and Dziak, the 1984 edition "continues the narrative through the post-Brezhnev succession."

Gourley, Robert D. [LCDR/USN] "A War Japan Won with Intelligence." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 10, no. 3 (Summer 1994): 1-4.

Hammant, Thomas R.

1. "Communications Intelligence and Tsarist Russia." Studies in Intelligence 22, no. 2 (Summer 1978): 29-38.

2. "Some Communications Intelligence in Tsarist Russia." CRYPTOLOG, Jan. 1984, 1-12.

"[R]evised and expanded version" of 1 above.

3. "Some Communications Intelligence in Tsarist Russia." Cryptologia 24, no. 3 (Jul. 2000): 235-249.

Reprint of 2 above. "[E]xplores the early development and use of communications intelligence by the tsarist Russian regime through World War I, and the importance attached to it, especially by the Russian Navy."

4. "Russian and Soviet Cryptology II -- The Magdeburg Incident: The Russian View." Cryptologia 24, no. 4 (Oct. 2000): 333-338.

"[T]he Russians played a major and on-going role, both in the cryptanalytic exploitation effort of the Magdeburg material and in the effective use of this communications intelligence by naval commanders of the Baltic Sea Fleet."

Hingley, Ronald. The Russian Secret Police: Muscovite, Imperial Russian and Soviet Political Security Operations. London: Hutchinson, 1970. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1971.

Pforzheimer reports that Hingley covers from Ivan the Terrible to the 1970s. Although he adds "no new insights or interpretations," the book is "well written" and "provides good background reading." Rocca and Dziak say that this book "is generally reliable and is one of the few works available covering such a broad time frame."

Korostovets, Vladimir. "The Black Cabinet." Contemporary Review 167, no. 3 (1945): 162-165.

Russian codebreaking. See also Andrew and Neilson, "Tsarist Codebreakers," I&NS 1.1 (1986), 7-12.

Kronenbitter, Rita T. "The Illustrious Career of Arkadiy Harting." Studies in Intelligence 11, no. 1 (Winter 1967): 71-86.

To Russian revolutionaries,"the life of Abraham Hackelman, as he was originally named, was one of endless and utmost infamy. He was a traitor to his ethnic group, an informer, spy, provocateur, impostor, and the most ruthless bloodhound of the Tsarist regime." His "true identity was exposed in 1909 at the height of his career as Arkadiy Harting," chief of Paris Okhrana. His exposure came from Vladimir Burtzev, who was building a counterintelligence bureau for the revolutionaries.

Kronenbitter, Rita T. "Okhrana Agent Dolin." Studies in Intelligence 10, no. 2 (Spring 1966): 57-72.

The author delves into Dolin's work for the Okhana against the Jewish Bund and the Anarcho-Communists, beginning in 1900. He worked first inside Russia and, then, in Geneva, Paris, and London. When World War I erupted, Dolin became a double agent against the Germans, supposedly carrying out acts of sabotage in Russia. He disappeared in Russia in early 1917.

Kronenbitter, Rita T.

1. "The Okhrana's Female Agents: Part I: Russian Women." Studies in Intelligence 9, no. 2 (Spring 1965): 25-41.

"The Okhrana depended heavily on female agents, particularly in foreign operations.... The best of the female operatives ... [had] their paramount motivation in patriotism and devotion to the anti-revolutionary cause.... Women could be the most valuable of agents, engaged in extremely dangerous or sensitive operations, but they never held positions entailing any kind of supervisory function."

2. "The Okhrana's Female Agents: Part II: Indigenous Recruits." Studies in Intelligence 9, no. 3 (Summer 1965): 59-78.

The author extends her story to the Okhrana's non-Russian female agents.

Kronenbitter, Rita T.

1. "Paris Okhrana 1885-1905." Studies in Intelligence 10, no. 3 (Summer 1966): 55-66.

Both inside Russia and abroad, the Okhrana was "surprisingly small." The primary task of the Paris center was "collecting intelligence on revolutionary movements." Okhrana headquarters and branches elsewhere also sent penetration agents abroad "with instructions to report directly home. The practice led to much confusion."

2. "Paris Okhrana: Final Phase." Studies in Intelligence 12, no. 3 {Summer 1968): 65-78.

The last chief of the Okhrana abroad, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Krassilnikov, took over in Paris in November 1909. He was "strong on systematic organization of the service..., capable of giving good guidance for operations but always aloof from any direct participation in them." The service was terminated in March 1917.

Kronenbitter, Rita T. "The Sherlock Holmes of the Revolution." Studies in Intelligence 11, no. 4 (Fall 1967): 83-100.

Vladimir Burtzev, journalist and propagandist, became the revolutionaries' chief counterintelligence operative in Paris. Among his many exposures, Burtzev was instrumental in uncovering Evno Azev, a leader in the Social Revolutionaries, as an Okhrana penetration.

Return to Russia Historical Table of Contents

Return to Historical Table of Contents