RUSSIA

2010 - 2011

Materials arranged chronologically.

Reuters. "Ukraine Says Expels Four Russians For Spying." 2 Feb. 2010. [http://www.rferl.org]

According to Valentyn Nalyvaychenko, the head of Ukraine's main intelligence service, "Ukraine has expelled four Russians for spying and detained another on espionage charges.... Nalyvaychenko said the spy group -- which included officers from Russia's Federal Security Service (FSB) and a Russian soldier stationed in Moldova's breakaway region Transdniestria -- had kidnapped a Ukrainian in an attempt to gain secrets. He said four of the Russians had been expelled from Ukraine while an FSB colonel had been arrested on espionage charges."

RIA Novosti. "Russia's FSB to Offer Rewards for Terrorism Information." 22 Jun. 2010. [http://en.rian.ru]

The Russian daily Kommersant reported on 22 June 2010 that a "draft order, signed by FSB director Alexander Bortnikov, says monetary rewards will be offered for any information on suspected terrorist attacks and their organizers. The reward will, however, only be given if the information leads to the capture of a terrorist or the prevention of a terrorist attack. The order did not define how much the FSB is prepared to pay for such information, but said rewards will be calculated for each case individually, depending on the quality of the information and the results it yields."

Soldatov, Andrei, and Irina Borogan. "The Spies Were No Joke." Foreign Policy, 22 Jul. 2010. [http://www.foreignpolicy.com]

"For many, the arrest of 12 Russian spies in the United States was a signal that the drama of the Cold War had returned as farce." As innocuous as their activities seem, "the West would do well to pay attention to just how closely the methods and intentions of Russia's current intelligence agency, the SVR, replicate those of Soviet-era intelligence agencies. Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, a KGB veteran, has concertedly molded the SVR in the image of its Soviet-era predecessor, most of all in its relentless focus on spying on the West. Indeed, the Russian spy ring wasn't an aberration, but a reflection of precisely the way that Putin wants his intelligence agencies to operate."

AFP. "Russia Expels Romanian Diplomat for Spying." 16 Aug. 2010. [http://www.afp.com]

According to an FSB spokesman on 16 August 2010, the first secretary of the political department at the Romanian embassy in Moscow, Gabriel Grecu, has been detained for spying, declared to be persona non grata, and ordered to leave the country within 48 hours.

Soldatov, Andrei, and Irina Borogan. "Russia's New Nobility: The Rise of the Security Services in Putin's Kremlin." Foreign Affairs 89, no. 5 (Sep.-Oct. 2010): 80-96.

Over the last decade, "the FSB ... has been granted the role of the new elite, enjoying expanded responsibilities and immunity from public oversight or parliamentary control.... The FSB's skeptical and xenophobic outlook has helped shape Russia's approach to the West.... Although Putin awarded high-ranking security officers more privileges and benefits, they retreated from risk and responsibility and thus proved less than effective in their duties, leading to lasting questions about their role in Russia's future."

Stein, Jeff. "Report: Russia Spy Agency in Turmoil over Defector." Washington Post, 11 Nov. 2010. [http://blog.washingtonpost.com]

According to the Moscow newspaper Kommersant, "Russia's foreign intelligence service [SVR] has been roiling with internal recriminations for months over the defection of the official responsible for its American operations" The newspaper said "questions were being raised about why top intelligence officials allowed Col. Shcherbakov ... to stay in his job as boss of Moscow's deep-cover spies ... even while his daughter was living" in the United States. "His son [an officer of the Federal Drug Enforcement Service] also left Russia just before Shcherbakov defected in June, the paper said. Days later the FBI arrested 10 Russian spies here."

RIA Novosti. "Russia Celebrates Foreign Intelligence's 90th Anniversary." 15 Dec. 2010. [http://en.rian.ru]

Speaking at a ceremony at the headquarters of the country's Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR) in southwest Moscow, "President Dmitry Medvedev has congratulated Russian spies on their professional holiday, the 90th anniversary" of the SVR.

Harding, Luke, Richard Norton-Taylor, and Tom Parfitt. "Russian Diplomat Expelled from UK for Alleged Spying; Kremlin Responds by Expelling Briton from British Embassy in Moscow as Tit-for-Tat Espionage Row Deepens." Guardian, 21 Dec. 2010. [http://www.guardian.co.uk]

"Britain's troubled relations with Moscow suffered another blow today when [Foreign Secretary] William Hague announced he had expelled a Russian diplomat in London following 'clear evidence' of spying." The British ultimatum was issued on 10 December 2010. "Russia responded on 16 December by expelling a diplomat from the British embassy in Moscow."

Associated Press. "Trial Gets Under Way against Russian Officer Who Allegedly Blew Whistle on US Spy Ring." 16 May 2011. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

The trial in absentia of former Russian intelligence officer Alexander Poteyev has begun in Moscow. He is "charged with high treason and desertion. Prosecutors claim he tipped off American authorities" about a deep-cover Russian spy ring. "Russian media say Poteyev controlled U.S.-based spy operations from Moscow, and fled to America just before Washington announced it had uncovered the 10 spies last summer."

Eshchenko, Alla, and Jill Dougherty. "Russian Convicted of Treason over U.S. Spy Ring." CNN, 27 Jun. 2011. [http://www.cnn.com]

According to a Moscow District Military Court spokeswoman on 27 June 2011, Col. Alexander Poteev "was convicted of treason for betraying a group of spies in the United States." He "was sentenced in absentia to 25 years in a penal colony and stripped of his military title." He has 10 days to file an appeal. See also, Vladimir Isachenkov, "Ex-Officer Convicted of Betraying Russian Spy Ring," Associated Press, 27 Jun. 2011.

Stolyarova, Galina. "Professors Go On Trial for Espionage." St. Petersburg Times, 7 Sep. 2011. [http://www.times.spb.ru]

"Yevgeny Afanasiev and Svyatoslav Bobyshev are professors at the city's State Military Mechanical University who both spent several months in China in 2009, lecturing at the Polytechnical University in Harbin. Prosecutors now allege that in April and May 2009, both professors passed classified information and revealed state secrets to the Chinese secret service."

Galeotti, Mark. "Spooks Under Fire." Moscow News, 20 Oct. 2011. [http://www.moscownews.ru]

"[W]hen most of Russia's security community ... have seen their budgets and powers grow, the GRU has just been through a savage round of cuts. In the past two years, it has lost over 1,000 officers." Of 100 or so generals who used to serve, "only about 20 are left." The GRU "has also lost the Spetsnaz special forces" to the regular army. "Most of the GRU’s 'residencies' ... have been closed down, or reduced to a single officer working as a military attaché." There is also "talk of the GRU -- technically the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff -- being downgraded next year to an ordinary directorate."

Fedor, Julie. "Chekists Look Back on the Cold War: The Polemical Literature." Intelligence and National Security 26, no. 6 (Dec. 2011): 842-863.

"Conspiratorial thinking offers a possible form of defence against humiliation,[footnote omitted] and many former chekists have turned to conspiracy theories as a way of making sense of the traumatic events of the past few decades."

Shpiro, Shlomo. "KGB Human Intelligence Operations in Israel 1948-73." Intelligence and National Security 26, no. 6 (Dec. 2011): 864-885.

"Operating out of the Soviet Embassy in Tel-Aviv, a large contingent of KGB case officers ran a string of agents deep inside Israel's security and diplomatic establishments.... Once diplomatic relations were severed, in 1967, the KGB lost much of its local capabilities and had to rely on 'illegal' case officers to run its agents in Israel, whose effectiveness was often compromised by Shabak double agent penetrations."

Matei, Florina Cristiana, and Thomas C. Bruneau. "Policymakers and Intelligence Reform in the New Democracies." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 24, no. 4 (Winter 2011-2012): 656-691.

The authors look at Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Poland, Romania, Spain, and Russia ("a stunning case of democratic regress"). In "at least four" of these countries -- "Poland, Brazil, Romania, and Spain -- the decisionmakers have managed to institutionalize agencies that are either transparent or effective, or both."

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