RUSSIA

2006 - 2007

Materials arranged chronologically.

Page, Jeremy. "Analysis: A Shot across Western Bows." Times (London), 23 Jan. 2006. [http://www.timesonline.co.uk]

"The timing of the release of the story [of a fake rock packed with surveillance equipment] on state television is very telling. The Russian Parliament has recently passed legislation requiring all of Russia's non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to register with a new regulatory body.... The crucial allegation in the [television] documentary ... was that one of the British diplomats involved in this spying ring was personally signing off grants for NGOs. It was a tenuous link, but the intended message was very clear: he's obviously a spy and he's passing NGOs Western money so that they can undermine the Russian state. It may seem simplistic..., but it has played very well in Russia."

Page, Jeremy, and Richard Beeston. "The 'British' Spy Operation Found Lurking under a Rock." Times (London), 24 Jan. 2006. [http://www.timesonline.co.uk]

At first glance, the grainy film aired on Moscow television on 22 January 2006 seems to show innocent behavior. But, according to the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB), what is seen is "Britain’s Secret Intelligence Service in action."

Four men are accused of being "spies working under cover at the British Embassy in Moscow. And the mysterious object [in the film] was a high-tech telecommunications device concealed inside a fake rock.... Passing agents could transmit secret information to this electronic dead letter box through a simple hand-held computer."

The television report "identified the four alleged spies as Marc Doe, a second secretary in the political section, Paul Crompton, a third secretary in the political section, and Christopher Pirt and Andrew Fleming, both researchers without diplomatic status. It also alleged that a Russian citizen who had contacts with the four had been detained and confessed to espionage." See also, Steven Lee Myers, "Russia Says Britain Used a Fake Rock to Hide Spy Gear," New York Times, 24 Jan. 2006.

Page, Jeremy. "Spies Collect More Toys as Cold War Turns to Hot Peace." Times (London), 25 Jan. 2006. [http://www.timesonline.co.uk]

"[I]f intelligence experts are correct,... Western spy agencies [are] step[ping] up their operations in Russia to a level not seen since the Soviet collapse.... Western intelligence services said last year that Russia had aggressively escalated its spying ... since President Putin... took power in 2000.... What is less widely publicised is that US and British intelligence have also been actively recruiting Russian-speaking agents in tandem with Russia's growing economic and political clout."

Naughton, Philippe. "MI6 Agent Jailed in Moscow for Betraying Russian Spies." Times (London), 9 Aug. 2006. [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/]

On 9 August 2006, "retired Russian intelligence officer, Col. Sergei Skripal, was sentenced to 13 years in jail ... for passing state secrets to Britain's MI6 and betraying dozens of Russian spies working in Europe in the late 1990s.... Russian officials did not spell out which branch of Russian intelligence Skripal worked for."

Anderson, Julie. "Return of the Chekists." C4ISR Journal 5, no. 9 (Oct. 2006): 44-46.

Aftergood, Steven. "Illuminating Russia's Main Directorate of Special Programs." Secrecy News (from the FAS Project on Government Secrecy), 15 Nov. 2006. [http://www.fas.org]

The Main Directorate of Special Programs (GUSP) is a "Russian security organization that was established as one of the various successors to the former KGB.... In a neat bit of detective work, the Open Source Center (OSC) ... noticed that new details of GUSP's internal structure could be gleaned from official badges sold by commercial vendors of military paraphernalia....

"Allen Thomson retrieved images of those telltale military insignia and combined them with other published material to produce 'A Sourcebook on the Russian Federation Main Directorate of Special Programs (GUSP)'" which is available at: http://www.fas.org/irp/world/russia/gusp.pdf.

Knight, Sam. "Fallout Spreads from Russian Spy Death ." Times (London), 24 Nov. 2006. [http://www.timesonline.co.uk]

The fallout from the suspicious death in London of the former KGB agent and Kremlin critic, Alexander Litvinenko, has "reached the highest levels" of the British government, as the Cobra Cabinet emergency committee, "Britain's top ministers and security officials[,] met to discuss the case." Scotland Yard has confirmed that traces of polonium-210, a highly toxic radioactive substance, have been "found in Litvinenko's urine."

Finn, Peter. "In Russia, A Secretive Force Widens: Putin Led Regrouping of Security Services." Washington Post, 12 Dec. 2006, A1. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

"Russia's intertwined political and business elites are increasingly populated with ... former intelligence agents who have personally proved themselves" to President Vladimir Putin. "At the same time, Putin has spearheaded the regrouping and strengthening of the country's security services." In particular, the Federal Security Service (FSB), headed by Putin in the 1990s, "has emerged as one of the country's most powerful and secretive forces, with an increasingly international mission."

Norton-Taylor, Richard, and Matthew Taylor. "Number of Spies in UK Returns to Cold War Levels." The Guardian, 13 Apr. 2007. [http://www.guardian.co.uk]

British security sources report that "[t]he number of Russian intelligence agents based in London has reached cold war levels, reflecting the Kremlin's growing interest in London's dissident community.... Counter intelligence officers say there are now 30 agents operating out of the Russian Embassy and trade mission -- with the possibility that many more are working undercover for outside agencies across the capital."

Arutunyan, Anna. "UK and Russia Trade Diplomats in Spy Row." Moscow News, 20 Jul. 2007. [http://mnweekly.rian.ru]

"Tensions between Russia and the UK over the ongoing investigation into the poisoning death of former Russian intelligence agent Alexander Litvinenko have escalated to a new level with the United Kingdom's decision to expel four Russian diplomats in response to Moscow's refusal to hand over Britain's chief suspect in the murder, Andrei Lugovoi. Russia responded with tit-for-tat measures [on 19 July 2007], declaring four British diplomats persona non grata and giving them ten days to leave the country."

Tarasov, Ilya. Tr., Guerman Grachev. "KGB's Most Dangerous Officer Unveils Secrets of Soviet Intelligence." Pravda, 13 Sep. 2007. [http://english.pravda.ru/russia/history/97107-intelligence-0]

Interview with "Viktor Budanov, a former chief of the KGB's Directorate K. The Directorate K, one of several sub-directorates within the First Chief Directorate (external intelligence) of the KGB, was disbanded following the August 1991 events."

Clark, Torrey. "Putin Names Russian Ex-Premier Head of Spy Service." Bloomberg, 6 Oct. 2007. [http://www.bloomberg.com]

On 6 October 2007, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced the appointment of former prime minister Mikhail Fradkov to head the Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR). Former SVR head Sergei Lebedev was named executive secretary of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

RIA Novosti. "Russia Says 300 Spies Caught In Last 4 Years." Moscow News, 11 Oct. 2007. [http://mnweekly.rian.ru]

Nikolai Patrushev, head of Russia's Federal Security Service (FSB), has told the popular weekly Argumenty i Fakty that the FSB has "identified over 300 foreign spies over the past four years.... He said that 14 agents and 33 recruits have been caught this year alone.... He said the United States and Britain actively used the secret services of Poland, Georgia and Baltic states against Russia.... According to Patrushev, British intelligence is particularly active against Russia, in its attempts to influence the country's domestic political developments."

Lefebvre, Stéphane. "Russian Intelligence Activities in Canada: The Latest Case of an 'Illegal.'" Journal of Slavic Military Studies 20, no. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 2007): 549-558.

"This article discusses Russia's use of 'illegals' for espionage purposes, using the recent Canadian case of one 'Paul William Hampel.' Unmasked in November 2006, his case ... was reminiscent of another one a decade earlier which involved two Russians who also operated under false Canadian identities.... [T]hat Russia is still using Canada for espionage purposes should not come as a surprise. One of the few tools Russia has[,] absent a strong economy and rejuvenated armed forces, is its intelligence apparatus. Hampels case should serve as a warning to all well-established advanced democracies: espionage is as important today as it ever was in the pursuit of a state's national interests."

Richter, Jan. "Czech Intelligence: Half of Russia's Diplomats in the Czech Republic Are Spies." Czech Radio 7, Radio Prague, 22 Nov. 2007. [http://www.radio.cz]

According to the 2006 annual report by the Czech counterintelligence service, published on 21 November 2007, about half of the "60 Russian Federation diplomats based in the Czech Republic ... work for Russian intelligence services." The report "maintains that Russian diplomats who were expelled from other democratic countries are often sent to the Czech Republic.... Other favourite covers for collaborators with Russian intelligence include journalists and positions in Russian-owned businesses."

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