Other Individuals

M - Z

Topics included here:

1. Francis Marion

2. Hercules Mulligan

3. Paul Revere

4. James Rivington

5. Haym Salomon

6. Other American Intelligence-Related Individuals

7. Other British Spies

1. Francis Marion

Thomsen, Paul A. "Guerrilla Patriot: The Intelligence Gathering Efforts and Battle Tactics of Francis Marion." Intelligencer 13, no. 1 (Spring-Summer 2002): 78-83. American Intelligence Journal 21, nos. 1 & 2 (Spring 2002): 61-65.

"Disregarding the period's traditional doctrine of military warfare, Francis Marion and his rag-tag brigade of partisans orchestrated a decisive campaign of espionage, guile, and speed meant to paralyze, if not expel the British Empire from their occupied colony."

2. Hercules Mulligan

Mulligan became George Washington's secret agent following the British occupation of New York City. He had access to British officers in his profession as a tailor and through officers billeted in his house. Mulligan is credited with informing Washington of Howe's planned expedition to Delaware in April 1777 and with supplying information that helped foil at least two British capture or assassination plots targeting Washington. O'Toole, Encyclopedia, p. 307.

Darcy, Mary. "Parole Boston, Countersign St. Patrick." Newsletter of the Revolutionary War Bicentennial Commission, Committee of Correspondence 8 (Mar. 1968) and 9 (Jun. 1969). [Petersen]

Mulligan, Luciel M. "Hercules Mulligan, Secret Agent." Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine 105 (1971): 232-235. [Petersen]

O'Brien, Michael J.

1. "Hercules Mulligan: Confidential Agent of General Washington in New York during the Revolution." Journal of the American Irish Historical Society 26 (1927): 96-104. [Calder]

2. Hercules Mulligan: Confidential Correspondent of General Washington. New York: P.J. Kennedy, 1937.

3. Paul Revere

Fischer, David Hackett. Paul Revere's Ride. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Bates, NIPQ 10.4: "There is not a lot of intelligence sources and methods [here], but enough to make it worth your while.... This is an elegant book, both in its story and its presentation.... Revere was not only the Boston leadership's intelligence briefer, but also their early warning system.... [Revere] was far more than a minor figure serving his social superiors as a messenger."

Forbes, Esther. Paul Revere and the World He Lived In. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1942. [Petersen]

4. James Rivington

Crary, Catherine S. "The Tory and the Spy: The Double Life of James Rivington." William and Mary Quarterly 16, no. 1 (Jan. 1959): 61-72.

Lawson, John L. "The 'Remarkable Mystery' of James Rivington, 'Spy.'" Journalism Quarterly 35, no. 3 (Summer 1958): 317.

5. Haym Salomon

Salomon is perhaps best known as one of the financiers of the American revolution; but between 1776 and 1778, he was one of Washington's spies in New York City.

Russell, Charles Edward. Haym Salomon and the Revolution. New York: Cosmopolitan Book Corp., 1930.

6. Other American Intelligence-Related Individuals

Alberts, Robert. The Most Extraordinary Adventures of Major Robert Stobo. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1963.

According to a precis at, the subject of this book "served as a spy for Gen. Washington behind French lines. Captured, sentenced to death, he escaped and led a band to take Williamsburg."

Clark, John. "Letters from Major John Clark, Jr., to Gen. Washington Written During the Occupation of Philadelphia by the British Army." Bulletin of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania 1 (1845-1847): 1-36. [Petersen]

Cook, Fred J. "Allen McLane, Unknown Hero of the Revolution." American Heritage 7, no. 3 (1956): 74-77, 118-119.

Dabney, Virginius. "Jack Jouett's Ride." American Heritage 12, no. 1 (Jan. 1961): 56-59.

Calder: Discusses Jouett's exploits "during and after the American Revolution."

Greene, George W. Life of Nathanael Greene. New York: 1871.

Petersen: "Washington's Quartermaster General was heavily involved in intelligence matters."

Nathanael Greene

McKone, Frank E. General Sullivan: New Hampshire Patriot. New York: Vantage, 1977.

Salmon, John. "'A Mission of the Most Secret and Important Kind': James Lafayette and American Espionage in 1781." Virginia Cavalcade 31, no. 2 (1981): 78-85.

Petersen: "A slave served as a double agent for the Americans."

Sellers, Charles Coleman. Patience Wright: American Artist and Spy in George III's London. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1976.

Constantinides: The focus here is on Wright's "social and artistic life. There is very little on any espionage she performed on behalf of the American revolutionary cause."

Weber, Ralph E. "James Lovell and Secret Ciphers During the American Revolution." Cryptologia 2, no. 1 (Jan. 1978): 75-89.

7. Other British Spies

Brown, Wallace. The Good Americans: Loyalists in the American Revolution. New York: Morrow, 1969.

Fryer, Mary Beacock. Loyalist Spy: The Experiences of Captain John Walden Meyers During the American Revolution. Brockville, Ont., Canada: Besancourt, 1974.

Constantinides: "Meyers, who was from New York State, served as a Loyalist spy," operating under the British Northern Department headquartered in Canada. "From Fryer's description, a good deal of this service was as courier for the British between Canada and New York City, although Meyers achieved fame at the time for his attempt to kidnap the American General Philip Schuyler."

Howe, John. A Journal Kept by Mr. John Howe, While He Was Employed as a British Spy in the Revolutionary War. Concord, NH: Luther Roby, 1827.

Constantinides notes that this work, written by an individual whose identity was (perhaps, is) in doubt for 150 years, is difficult to evaluate as to trustworthiness. Bakeless quotes from it in Turncoats, Traitors and Heroes (1959). McKone in his General Sullivan (1977) suggested that Howe was an alias of John Hall who was linked to the defection of Benedict Arnold

Schaeper, Thomas. Edward Bancroft: Scientist, Author, Spy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2011.

Ehrman, Studies 55.4 (Dec. 2011), says that "[o]ne of the strongest parts of the book is Schaeper's exploration of Bancroft’s motives for spying." He concludes that Bancroft saw himself as a British subject and, therefore, "when the British government asked for his help, he gave it willingly. In Schaeper's account, Bancroft was a spy, but not a traitor.... [Footnote omitted] Schaeper tells a good story about politics, diplomacy, and espionage, and leaves his readers with much to think about."

Vaillancourt, John P. "Edward Bancroft (@ Edwd. Edwards), Estimable Spy." Studies in Intelligence 5, no. 1 (Winter 1961): A53-A67.

Edward Bancroft, a British agent, worked as private secretary to Benjamin Franklin and Silas Dean, American commissioners in Paris.

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