1. Enoch Crosby
2. Silas Deane
3. John Honeyman
4. Thomas Knowlton
5. Marquis de Lafayette
Barnum, H.L. The Spy Unmasked; or, Memoirs of Enoch Crosby, Alias Harvey Birch. New York: J&J Harper, 1828. Reprinted with additional material, Harrison, NY: Harbor Hill Books, 1975.
http://www.cloakanddagger.com/dagger: This is "the exciting story of John Jay's Spy of the Neutral Ground during the American Revolution. Was Crosby the spy featured in James Fenimore Cooper's notable fiction? This tells all."
Pickering, James H. "Enoch Crosby, Secret Agent of the Neutral Ground: His Own Story." New York History 47 (Jan. 1966): 61-73.
Abernathy, Thomas P. "The Commercial Activities of Silas Deane in France." American Historical Review 39 (Apr. 1934): 477-485. [Petersen]
James, Coy Hilton. Silas Deane -- Patriot or Traitor? East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1975.
Constantinides comments that James' "conclusion that Deane was not in the pay of the British while he was serving as a commissioner in France during the American Revolution is supported by most scholars."
The standard story is that Honeyman, living in Griggstown, New Jersey, posed as a Loyalist during the Revolutionary War, but was in fact a Patriot spy. He has been credited with alerting George Washington to the lack of discipline among the Hessian troops in Trenton. Additionally, he served as a disinformation agent by assuring Hessian commander Rall that the American force across the river in Pennsylvania was demoralized and in retreat from its defeat in New York. See Falkner below. Rose (below) disputes those claims.
Falkner, Leonard. "A Spy for Washington." American Heritage 8, no. 3 (Aug. 1957): 58-64.
O'Dea, Anna, and Samuel A. Pleasants. "The Case of John Honeyman: Mute Evidence." New Jersey Historical Society 84 (Jul. 1966): 174-181. [Petersen]
Rose, Alexander. "The Strange Case of John Honeyman and Revolutionary War Espionage." Studies in Intelligence 52, no. 2 (Jun. 2008): 27-41.
The author argues that "key parts of the [Honeyman] story were invented or plagiarized long after the Revolution and, through repetition, have become accepted truth." Kenneth A. Daigler, aka P.K. Rose, "In Defense of John Honeyman (and George Washington)," Studies in Intelligence 53, no. 4 (Dec. 2009), 87-89, takes issue with Alexander Rose's conclusion with regard to Honeyman. In particular, he believes that Washington was both experienced in and capable of directly running a singleton spy such as Honeyman.
Faint, Lilla [CPT/USA]. Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Knowlton: A Short Biography. Ft. Huachuca, AZ: Military Intelligence Corps Association, n.d. [http://www.micastore.com/AwardsForms/Thomas_Knowlton.doc]
A brief review of Knowlton's life and the formation of his unit, Knowlton's Rangers. In 1995, MICA created an award named after Knowlton. See also, "Thomas Knowlton and the Taproot of U.S. Army Intelligence" at the Huachuca History Program under "Masters of the Intelligence Art" at: http://huachuca.army.mil/files/History_MKNOWL.PDF.
U.S. Army. Center for Military History. "Rangers in Colonial and Revolutionary America." http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/revwar/revra.htm.
This is a brief and easily read article that traces the evolution of the "ranger tradition" from the seventeenth century wars between colonists and Native American tribes through the Revolutionary War.
Kesteloot, André. "Why Did Lafayette Come to America?" Intelligencer 11, no. 2 (Winter 2000): 17-22.
The author proposes that Lafayette came to America "as a willing but unwitting player in an intrigue woven by Comte Charles de Broglie, [footnote omitted] the former head of the French Royal Secret Intelligence Service who was seized with the idea of taking the place of George Washington if the latter failed to lead the Americans to victory over the British, and in the general context of French-British hostility."
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