[Graphic from http://www.sar.org/other/onguard.gif]


Campaigns and Battles

Heinlein, Bruce. "Could the British Have Won at Yorktown -- with GEOINT?" Pathfinder: The Geospatial Intelligence Magazine 5, no. 2 (Mar.-Apr. 2007): 18-19. [http://www.nga.mil]

"How did the British under Gen. Charles Cornwallis become trapped in this small port at a bend in the York River?... The bulk of the American army arrived before Cornwallis was aware that the Americans were moving. His intelligence failed him.... As a defendable site Yorktown paled in comparison to others locally available. Also, Cornwallis received intelligence too late on the movement of the large Continental Army. With better information, he might have escaped defeat."

Martin, Steven J. "Ignoring the Road Less-Traveled: Intelligence Operations at the Battle of Long Island." Military Intelligence 18, no. 3 (Jul.-Sep. 1992): 26-30.

O'Toole, G.J.A. "The Chesapeake Capes: American Intelligence Coup?" International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 10, no. 2 (Summer 1997): 196-205.

The author looks at the story that a British Naval signals book had been stolen and passed to French Admiral de Grasse prior to his victory over the British at the Battle of the Chesapeake Capes on 5 September 1781. O'Toole finds the roots of the British defeat in an inflexible tactical doctrine and the limitations of the ship-to-ship flag signalling system, rather than the actions of some Patriot spy.

Sanborn, Paul J. "The Battle of Brandywine: An Intelligence Evaluation of General George Washington's Tactical Operations During the Battle Along the Brandywine, 11 September 1777." American Intelligence Journal 16, no. 2/3 (Autumn-Winter 1995): 69-80.

The author argues that "Washington tried to seize the initiative at Brandywine and would have succeeded if his secondary intelligence had not failed him at a critical time.... Washington was far from passive and in the 'daze' his biographer, Douglas Southall Freeman, believed him to be in during the Brandywine Campaign."

Stone, William L. "Schuyler's Faithful Spy: An Incident in the Burgoyne Campaign." Magazine of American History 2 (1878): 414-419. [Petersen]

Thompson, Edmund R.

1. "Army Intelligence at Yorktown: Catalyst to Victory." Military Intelligence 7, no. 3 (1981): 44-47. [Petersen]

2. "Intelligence at Yorktown." Defense/81 (Oct. 1981): 25-28. [Petersen]

Weber, William T. "The British Capture of Washington, DC, 1814." Studies in Intelligence 58, no. 2 (Jun. 2014): 47-54. [https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol-58-no-2/pdfs/Weber-Strategic%20Surprise-1814-June2014.pdf]

"As with Pearl Harbor and 9/11, the intelligence failure was intertwined with a policy failure. British efforts to mask their intentions exacerbated disagreements within Madison's cabinet."

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