G - N

Garicano, Luis, and Richard A. Posner. "Intelligence Failures: An Organizational Economics Perspective." Journal of Economic Perspectives 19, no. 4 (Fall 2005): 151-170.

From abstract: "Two recent failures of the United States intelligence system have led to the creation of high-level investigative commissions..... We use insights from organizational economics to analyse the principal organizational issues raised by these commissions."

Gutjahr, Melanie M. H. The Intelligence Archipelago: The Community's Struggle to Reform in the Globalized Era. Washington, DC: Joint Military Intelligence College, 2005.

According to Van Nederveen, Air & Space Power Journal 21.2 (Summer 2007), this work "examines efforts to reform the intelligence community dating back to World War II.... [T]he author provides a useful service to anyone attempting to gather information about what transpired in the House and Senate Intelligence Committees" in the "turbulent years" following "the collapse of the Soviet Union.... [T]the text suffers from ... too many quotations, poor layout, and wordiness that makes it difficult for the reader to follow the author's key points. Nevertheless, these flaws should in no way stop the intelligence professional, historian, or political scientist from studying the data therein. The Intelligence Archipelago is a gold mine of information."

Hammond, Thomas H. "Why Is the Intelligence Community So Difficult to Redesign? Smart Practices, Conflicting Goals, and the Creation of Purpose-Based Organizations." Governance 20, no. 3 (Jul. 2007): 401–422.

"One central argument is simply that it was very difficult to discover a clearly superior structure; in fact, the long-standing structure may have had some unrecognized virtues. But the other central argument is that one smart practice may have emerged since the 9/11 attacks: It involves the creation of problem-focused interagency centers that are intended to enhance the sharing and integration of information within the intelligence community."

Hastedt, Glenn. "Foreign Policy by Commission: Reforming the Intelligence Community." Intelligence and National Security 22, no. 4 (Aug. 2007): 443-472.

The author begins his review of intelligence commissions with the first Hoover Commission (1948) and continues through the 9/11 and WMD commissions. His conclusions? The recommendations of intelligence commissions "present a decidedly mixed bag." Although such recommendations were not totally ignored, "it is not possible to speak of linear movement toward improving the quality or management of intelligence anlysis." Nevertheless, "in each instance [commissions] narrowed the range of policy choices receiving serious consideration."

Hulnick, Arthur S. Fixing the Spy Machine: Preparing American Intelligence for the Twenty-First Century. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999.

Clark comment: Despite its title, this book is not focused on reform issues; it is, instead, a contender for adoption as a text for a college course in intelligence or as a supplemental text in a broader national security course. Despite the qualms expressed about the work by CIA critics, it fulfills the textbook need admirably.

Robert David Steele provides the following comments: "This book has two good features -- the author really does understand the personnel issues, and hence one can read between the lines for added value; and the book is as good an 'insider' tour of the waterfront as one could ask for. How the book treats the CIA-FBI relationship, for example, is probably representative of how most CIA insiders feel. The book does not reflect a deep understanding of open sources and tends to accept the common wisdom across the intelligence bureaucracy, that all is 'generally okay' and just a bit of change on the margin is necessary. In this respect, it is a good benchmark against which the more daring reformist books may be measured."

Melvin Goodman, Washington Monthly, Mar. 2000, 54-55, can find little good to say about Hulnick's work: "Hulnick ... spent 28 years in the CIA and his new book reads very much like he's still in it"; "the reader confronts a generally out-of-date review of the various functions of the CIA and the intelligence community in America"; and "systemic problems receive little scrutiny from Hulnick and he leaves major issues unaddressed."

Wirtz, IJI&C 13.2, has a more positive view of Fixing the Spy Machine. He sees the work as a "lively overview of the workings" of the U.S. Intelligence Community and "a highly accessible and balanced assessment of the dilemmas created by the presence of secret organizations in American democracy." Wirtz does suggest, however, that the "information revolution" is confronting the CIA with "a deeper crisis than Mr. Hulnick recognizes."

Johnson, Loch K. Bombs, Bugs, Drugs, and Thugs: Intelligence and America's Quest for Security. New York and London: New York University Press, 2000. 2002. [pb]

For Chapman, IJI&C 15.1, this work "is often puzzling"; but, "all things considered, there is much of value" here. "[A]nyone concerned about the current state of the American intelligence services should read it." The author "exposes many significant problems threatening the U.S. security system." Turner, IJI&C 15.2, says that this is "a neat, insightful, and readable volume written by an eminently qualified and knowledgeable expert in the field." Although the title might imply a wider subject area, the CIA is the real centerpiece in the author's study. Johnson's "principal message is that U.S. Intelligence needs to focus less on gadgets and more on Human Intelligence."

Jones, Calvert. "Intelligence Reform: The Logic of Information Sharing." Intelligence and National Security 22, no. 3 (Jun. 2007): 384-401.

This is an interesting critique of the "Information Sharing Environment," which draws on both information and communications theory. The author argues that the reforms that flowed from the influential report of the 9/11 Commission "may privilege the flow of information and its sheer volume at the expence of the context and analytic tradecaft that render it meaningful actionable intelligence." [Italics in original]

Lehman, John. "Five Years Later: Are We Any Safer?" U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 132, no. 9 (Sep. 2006): 18-22.

The former Secretary of the Navy and 9/11 commission member does not really answer the question raised in the title. Other than that, however, this article is a powerful indictment of how Congress and the White House mishandled the intelligence reform effort. His most pointed criticisms are directed at the FBI ("Our attempt to reform the FBI has failed.") and the failure to create a strong DNI.

McNeil, Phyllis Provost. "The Evolution of the U.S. Intelligence Community -- An Historical Overview." In Strategic Intelligence: Windows into a Secret World, eds. Loch K. Johnson and James J. Wirtz, 5-20. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury, 2004.

Lehneman, IJI&C 20.1 (Spring 2007), calls this "an excellent synopsis since 1947" of the "continuous scrutiny and various forms of adjustment to [the] institutions and processes" of the U.S. Intelligence Community.

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