Material from the 1990s on Military Intelligence

Journal Articles on Reform


This file lists the contents of the first issue of the Defense Intelligence Journal (Spring 1992) and two issues of the American Intelligence Journal (Autumn-Winter 1993-1994 and Spring-Summer 1994), which focused on change, reorganization, and reform of military intelligence.

1. Defense Intelligence Journal 1, no. 1 (Spring 1992): "Special Theme: Defense Intelligence Reorganization in a Changing World."

a. Robert O. Slater and Mark Weisenbloom, "Editors' Introduction: Defense Intelligence in a Changing International Environment," 1-2.

b. James R. Clapper, Jr. [LTGEN/USAF)], "Defense Intelligence Reorganization and Challenges," 3-16.

Includes review of DIA organizational preparations for Desert Shield/ Desert Storm at pp. 6-11.

c. David L. Boren, "Rethinking US Intelligence," 17-29.

d. Larry Seaquist, "Defense Intelligence in a Disorderly World," 31-53.

e. Ed Quam, "Intelligence Restructuring: The European Command Perspective," 55-59.

f. William Walls [CAPT/USN] and Lynwood Metts [MAJ/USAF], "The Changing Role of Intelligence: Perspectives from the Pacific Theater," 61-74.

g. William E. Colby, "Tactical Intelligence: The Need for Improvement,"75-80.

h. Russell G. Swenson, "The Warning and Crisis Support Functions in Regional Joint Intelligence Centers," 81-93.

2. American Intelligence Journal 14, no. 3 (Autumn-Winter 1993-1994).

a. Roy K. Jonkers [COL/USAF (Ret)], "Editor's Prologue," 6.

Refers to the "creation of the Defense HUMINT Service on 2 November 1993, to be accomplished by [FY 1997], including the transfer of functions, personnel and resources from the Services. It will involve creating a [DHS] with a single joint manning authorization and a consolidated HUMINT budget within the GDIP.... The Director of DIA will be responsible for running this organization under the overview of the ASD (C3I) and the DepSecDef."

b. James R. Clapper [LTGEN/USAF, D/DIA], "Reorganization of DIA and Defense Intelligence Activities," 9-16.

Clapper refers to an "environment characterized by escalating consumer needs and generally declining resources" and to an "international security environment marked by diverse regional crises and contingencies." DIA "will lose nearly 1,000 billets" by FY 1997. "Throughout the General Defense Intelligence Program (GDIP) ... cuts will approach 5,000 billets by FY 1997." DIA has "recently completed the most profound reorganization in [its] 32-year history." It has "shifted ... analytic orientation from a regional to a functional basis" and "will be dependent on the Service production organizations and the JICs for substantial military intelligence production."

c. Ira C. Owens [LTGEN/USA, DCoS/Intelligence], "Army Intelligence in Transition: 'Changing Horizons,'" 17-20.

"INSCOM organizations which perform national SIGINT functions are being restructured from conventional OCONUS lines of sight and HF collection mission units into jointly manned organizations, at CONUS locations, with the access to enemy signals via remote collection technology and communications linkages."

d. Ervin J. Rokke [MGEN/USAF, ACoS/Intelligence], "Restructuring Air Force Intelligence," 21-24.

On 1 October 1993, the Air Force Intelligence Command (AFIC) was redesignated "as the Air Intelligence Agency (AIA), reporting directly to the [ACS/I] vice the CSAF."

e. Herbert M. Strauss [LTCOL/USMC], "Marine Corps Intelligence in an Expeditionary Era: Meeting the Challenge of Change," 25-28.

Not enlightening.

f. Central Imagery Office, "Future Direction for the United States Imagery System," 31-34.

The "present imagery resources were developed primarily to support the needs of the President and senior national security decisionmakers. Not surprisingly, attempts to apply these resources and supporting infrastructure to support war fighters have fallen short.... Furthermore, today's exploitation and production capabilities are fragmented and prone to duplication. They neither form a coherent, responsive, or flexible system to serve the needs of the war fighter, nor do they adequately support an increasingly diverse set of civil imagery users.... The challenge for the CIO is to lead the imagery community to design a United States Imagery System that responds to [current] trends, takes advantage of state-of-the-art advances in technology, and is responsive to imagery user needs.... The USIS architecture should address the full imagery cycle: requirements management, collection, processing, production, and delivery.... It will fully integrate management of all elements of the cycle, whether during war or peace."

g. Thomas, Jack E. [MGEN/USAF (Ret.)] "Reorganization of Intelligence Activities in the Office of the Secretary of Defense." American Intelligence Journal 14, no. 3 (Autumn-Winter 1993-1994), 41-47.

President Nixon's 5 November 1971 memorandum, "Reorganization of the U.S. Intelligence Community," directed the DCI to "prepare a consolidated intelligence program budget.... The DCI established an Intelligence Community Staff (ICS), a primary responsibility of which was to develop the NFIP budget for the DCI. President Nixon had given the DCI budget responsibilities, but no authorities, and the new ASD(I) largely staved off direct ICS participation in development of DoD inputs to the NFIP budget." E.O. 12036 of 24 January 1978 "gave the DCI authorities as well as responsibilities for the NFIP budget that still exist.... Interrelationships between the DCI and senior DoD officials are complicated because of the quite comprehensive program and budget responsibilities and authorities assigned by the President and the Congress to the DCI for the [NFIP]."

h. Henry S. Rowen, "Reforming Intelligence: A Market Approach," 49- 54.

Excerpts from paper published by Working Group on Intelligence Reform: Henry S. Rowen, Reforming Intelligence: A Market Approach (Washington, DC: Consortium for the Study of Intelligence, 1993).

i. [Editor], "Reinventing the Intelligence Community," 69-71.

j. [Editor], "Intelligence Systems Board," 72-73.

Headed by Executive Director, Intelligence Community Affairs.

3. American Intelligence Journal 15, no. 1 (Spring-Summer 1994): Focus on "Signals Intelligence and Information War."

a. J. M. McConnell [VADM/USN, DIRNSA/Chief, CSS], "New World, New Challenges: NSA Into the 21st Century," 7-10.

Consists of Director-type boiler plate, with reference to a "much more diverse electronic environment" and being "confronted with a linguistic challenge of staggering proportions."

b. Paul E. Menoher, Jr. [MGEN/USA, Commander/INSCOM], "Where Do We Go from Here?" 11-14.

"Army Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) [has been] severely degraded by the closure of major forward based sites and the loss of units to mandated forece reductions." The Army is in the process of "evolving [a] Regional SIGINT Operations Center (RSOC) architecture."

c. Kenneth A. Minihan [MGEN/USAF, Commander/Air Intelligence Agency], "Information Dominance: Meeting the Intelligence Needs of the 21st Century," 15-19.

The author discusses the Air Force's "two center strategy consisting of the Air Force Information Warfare Center (AFIWC) and the National Air Intelligence Center (NAIC)."

d. Michael S. Cassidy [COL/USAF, Director of Operation/Headquarters/Air Intelligence Agency], "SIGINT: An Important Part of Air Force Intelligence," 20.

"Comprising 70 percent of our 16,000 person total strength, a great proportion of AIA's analytical expertise is vested in our enlisted troops.... The 19 Aug 93 activation of the Medina Regional SIGINT Operations Center (RSOC) in San Antonio."

e. Thomas F. Stevens [RADM/USN, Commander/Naval Security Group Command], "Cryptology From the Sea," 21-24.

f. Stephen C. Robb [LTCOL/USMC], "Marine Corps Signals Intelligence: The Warfighter's Force Multiplier," 25-29.

"Approximately two-thirds of all Marine Corps SIGINT assets reside within the Fleet Marine Force."

g. B. Harl Romine, "Intelligence Data for Tactical Commanders," 30-38.

Excerpted from "previously published paper.... [A]ddresses some of the military intelligence (SIGINT) and communications systems and networks being developed to enable the Services and Commands to fight effectively in an environment heavily impacted by new weapons and information technologies."

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