RECONNAISSANCE

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

2000s

A - J

Air & Space Magazine. "Microspies: A Web Anthology." 30 Apr. 2000. [http://www.AirAndSpaceMagazine.com/ASM/Mag/Supp/AM00/uSPY.html -- not operational on 5/9/09]

Brief descriptions and a list of links to the following micro reconnaissance projects: The Entomopter Project, CalTech Microbat, Micromechanical Flying Insect, Spy Fly, The Mesicopter: A Meso-Scale Flight Vehicle, Mesicopter Image Gallery, DARPA Micro-Air Vehicles, Lockheed Martin MicroSTAR, Micro Air Vehicle Acquisition Schedule, British Micro Air Vehicle Page, AeroVironment's "Black Widow" Micro Air Vehicle, and Black Widow: Palm-Size Spy Plane.

Best, Richard A., Jr. Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (ISR): The U-2 Aircraft and Global Hawk UAV Programs. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 1 Dec. 2000. Available at: http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL30727.pdf.

From"Summary": "Key concerns are whether manned aircraft can be completely replaced by UAVs, the time that it will take to integrate the Global Hawks into the operating force structure, and the availability of adequate funds to support the acquisition of Global Hawks without compromising vital operational capabilities for an extended period."

Bone, Elizabeth, and Christopher Bolkcom. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 25 Apr. 2003. Available at: http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL31872.pdf.

"Congressional considerations include the proper pace, scope, and management of DoD UAV procurement; appropriate investment priorities for UAVs versus manned aircraft; UAV future roles and applications; and aerospace industrial base considerations."

Coffey, Timothy, and John A. Montgomery. "The Emergence of Mini UAVs for Military Applications." Defense Horizons 22 (Dec. 2002): 1-8.

"Mini UAVs [defined here as vehicles with wingspans from 6 inches to 10 feet and that fly 20-50 miles an hour] have substantial limitations, but the low radar cross section, low infrared signature, low acoustic signature, and birdlike appearance of these vehicles, combined with the remarkable capabilities of miniturized payloads, make them contenders for certain missions and potential valuable tactical assets."

Cook, Nick.

1. "Briefing: Unmaned Air Vehicles." Jane's Defence Weekly, Jan. 2002, 24-27.

2. "Predator Closes Sensor-to-Shooter Gap for USAF." Jane's Defence Weekly, Feb. 2002, 28-29.

Dornheim, Michael A., and Michael A. Taverna. "War on Terrorism Boosts Deployment of Mini-UAVs." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 8 Jul. 2002.

Fulghum, David A. "Hide and Seek." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 28 Feb. 2005.

According to military and aerospace industry officials, the CIA, not the U.S. Air Force, is flying "unmanned reconnaissance aircraft over Iran,... looking for Iranian nuclear facilities and delivery systems, such as long-range ballistic missiles." The author also discusses "clues" found in the FY05 "emergency supplemental defense budget ... about the U.S. effort to build up its intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities in the region."

Fulghum, David A., and Robert Wall. "Global Hawk Snares Big Break." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 23 Oct. 2000, 55.

The Pentagon "plans to spend as much as an extra $1 billion in the next five years to buy additional [Global Hawk] aircraft and position it to take over the [reconnaissance and signals-intelligence-gathering] duties of the manned U-2."

Garamone, Jim. "From U.S. Civil War to Afghanistan: A Short History of UAVs." American Forces Press Service. 16 Apr. 2002. [http://www.defenselink.mil]

This is a brief-but-informative item at the basic level.

Gorman, Siobhan, Yochi J. Dreazen, and August Cole. "Insurgents Hack U.S. Drones." Wall Street Journal, 17 Dec. 2009. [http://online.wsj.com]

According to senior defense and intelligence officials, Iranian-backed Shiite insurgents in Iraq "have used $26 off-the-shelf software to intercept live video feeds from U.S. Predator drones, potentially providing them with information they need to evade or monitor U.S. military operations.... U.S. officials say there is no evidence that militants were able to take control of the drones or otherwise interfere with their flights.... The potential drone vulnerability lies in an unencrypted downlink between the unmanned craft and ground control."

Gutman, Roy. "What Did the CIA Know?" Newsweek, 27 Aug. 2001. [http://www.msnbc.com]

Croatian General Ante Gotovina, accused at the Hague Tribunal of war crimes in Krajina in 1995, is arguing that reconnaissance photography taken by CIA-operated GNAT-750 drones "is relevant to establishing [his] innocence."

Haines, Lester. "UK Lifts Lid on Unmanned Stealth Aircraft." The Register, 16 Jan. 2006. [http://www.theregister.co.uk]

According to the BBC, the UK has unveiled "the 'Corax' unmanned stealth surveillance aircraft," a BAE systems development project. Commenting earlier on the Corax, Hoyle, Flight International, 19 Dec. 2005, adds that "the high-speed design uses a shrouded, above-fuselage engine and has an extended wing with moving control surfaces."

Jaquish, Douglas W. [MAJ/USAF] "Uninhabited Air Vehicles for Psychological Operations -- Leveraging Technology for PSYOP Beyond 2010." Chronicles Online Journal (6 Apr. 2004). [http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/cc/jaquish.html]

"This paper focuses on the nature of psychological operations (PSYOP), enabling technologies to employ UAVs for PSYOP, and how this transformation is shaping U.S. Air Force concepts of operations (CONOP) and strategy in the joint battlespace."

Jehl, Douglas. "It's Planes vs. Satellites in Debate on Spying." New York Times, 16 Dec. 2004. [http://www.nytimes.com]

"An alternative to a new, highly classified $9.5 billion stealth satellite program that is the subject of a Congressional dispute calls on the United States to rely much more heavily on high-flying unmanned aircraft to take pictures of critical targets around the world, former government officials and private experts say.... The alternative, endorsed by the Senate Intelligence Committee in authorization bills over the past two years, also calls for greater reliance on other, nonstealthy reconnaissance satellite systems now in existence or in development, including commercial satellites and a new generation of satellites known as the Future Imagery Architecture."

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