RECONNAISSANCE

Satellites

Articles

Di - G

Diamond, John M.

1. "Problems and Prospects in U.S. Imagery Intelligence." National Security Studies Quarterly, Spring 1997.

The discussion is of U.S. space-based imagery intelligence.

2. "Re-examining Problems and Prospects in U.S. Imagery Intelligence." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 14, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 1-24.

The focus here is on space-based imagery intelligence. The discussion flows out of five "key points" identified by the author:

"1. The U.S. space imagery community has yet to clearly lay out a path forward that id unanimously supported within the intelligence community and by congressional overseers.

"2. The current space imagery intelligence architecture has yet to demonstrate an ability to contribute decisively in one of the nation's most important national security areas: terrorism and weapons proliferation.

"3. The primary mission of imagery intelligence is trending away from the national strategic mission of the Cold War and toward a real-time battlefield information role....

"4. Despite a major transformation of the major national security challenges facing the United States, the imagery intelligence system in use today is essentially the same as that used during the Cold War.

"5. Among sophisticated adversaries, development of the skills involved in denying and deceiving observation from space appears to be outpacing advancement in satellite intelligence collection."

Diamond, John. "U.S. Verifies Arms Reduction with Espionage Photos: Old Pictures Help Locate Secure Sites for Storage of Nuclear Warheads." Detroit News, 17 Feb. 1999. [http://detnews.com]

Report on a symposium about the declassified photographs from CIA's Corona program, held 16 February 1999 at the Carnegie Endowment for Peace. The report errs in stating that Corona "was developed by rocket scientists pressing to find a replacement for U-2 spy planes after the downing of Francis Gary Powers' U-2 in 1960"; the program was well advanced by May 1960.

Falk, Richard A. "Space Espionage and the World Order: A Consideration of the Samos-Midas Program." In Essays on Espionage and International Law, ed. R.J. Stanger, 45- 82. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1962. [Petersen]

Finney, John W. "Copter Recovers Capsule Ejected by U.S. Satellite." New York Times, 12 Aug. 1960, A1.

Flaherty, Anne, and Pamela Hess. "US Plans New Spy Satellite Program." Associated Press, 1 Dec. 2007. [http://www.associatedpress.com]

The United States is pursuing a $2-$4 billion program to develop a new photo reconnaissance satellite system. The system, known as BASIC, is "the first major effort of its kind since the Pentagon canceled the ambitious and costly Future Imagery Architecture [FIA] system" in 2005. The new system "would be launched by 2011."

French, Matthew. "Defense Plans Smaller, Cheaper Satellites." Federal Computer Week, 16 Oct. 2003. [http://www.fcw.com]

Speaking in Boston at the Military Communications Conference 2003, Arthur Cebrowsk [VADM/USN (Ret.)], DOD's director of force transformation, announced that "[t]he Defense Department plans to launch a small, relatively cheap, experimental tactical satellite capable of supporting specific missions early next year." It is expected that "TacSat-1 will proceed from the official go-ahead to launch in about nine months for a total cost of only $15 million....

"TacSat-1 will be a sensor satellite, not used specifically for imagery or voice and data communications. It will, however, use an infrared camera and new thermal imaging technology, according to information from the Office of Force Transformation. The system will have a Secret Internet Protocol Router Network address, so battlefield commanders could potentially access the satellite's sensor data through DOD's classified network."

Friedman, Norman. "World Naval Developments: Satellite Reconnaissance Upgraded." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 121, no. 12 (Dec. 1995): 91-92.

Fulghum, David A., and Joseph C. Anselmo. "DARPA Pitches Small Sats for Tactical Reconnaissance." Aviation Week & Space Technology, Mar. 1998, 24.

Gaffney, Timothy R. "'Missile Gap' Was Myth: A Reconnaissance Expert Tells About a Super-Secret CIA Spy Operation." Dayton Daily News, 18 Mar. 1998, 1B, 2B.

Report on comments about Corona system made by Dino Brugioni in visit to and lecture at the U.S. Air Force Museum, 17 March 1998.

Gertz, Bill.

1. "Senate Seeks Intelligence Hub to Shield Satellites." Washington Times, 6 Feb. 2007. [http://www.washingtontimes.com]

"A provision of the Senate intelligence authorization bill for fiscal 2007 would require the Bush administration" to create "a new National Space Intelligence Center to better spy on space-based and other threats to U.S. military, intelligence and commercial satellites." The new center would be part of the Office of the DNI.

2. "12-hour Glitch on Spy Satellite Causes Intelligence Gap." Washington Times, 26 Jul. 2001. [http://www.washtimes.com]

The NRO lost contact with a Lacrosse radar-imaging satellite last week, "causing a major gap in intelligence monitoring of world hot spots.... The satellite stopped functioning for some 12 hours, according to U.S. intelligence officials.... The satellite was said to be functioning normally after the glitch was fixed."

Greer, Kenneth E. "CORONA: The First Photographic Reconnaissance Satellite." Studies in Intelligence Supplement 17 (Spring 1973): 1-37.

Guillemette, Roger. "Declassified US Spy Satellites Reveal Rare Look at Cold War Space Program." space.com, 18 Sep. 2011. [http://www.msnbc.msn.com]

On 17 September 2011, the NRO declassified the KH-7 GAMBIT, the KH-8 GAMBIT 3 and the KH-9 HEXAGON ("Big Bird") spy satellites. The satellites were displayed in a one-day-only public exhibit at the Smithsonian National Air & Space Museum's Udvar-Hazy Center at Dulles Airport, Va. The spacecraft "are the centerpiece of the NRO's invitation-only 50th Anniversary Gala celebration held at the center." The KH-7 was first launched in 1963. The KH-8 flew its surveillance operations between 1966 and 1984. The KH-9 flew its photographic reconnaissance missions from 1971 to 1986.; it weighed 30,000 pounds and was 60 feet long.

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