Anselmo, Joseph C. "House, Senate at Odds Over Intel Smallsats." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 13 Nov. 1995, 24-25.
The Senate intelligence committee has sided with the NRO and DCI Deutch that "smallsat technologies should be examined further before building a spacecraft." Larry Combest, chair of the House intelligence committee, is continuing to push for building a smallsat prototype.
Aviation Week & Space Technology. Editors. "KH-11 Recons Modified." 9 Oct. 1995, 28.
The KH-11 reconnaissance satellite system is being modified "so it can provide more real-time/broad area coverage.... The new satellite system will have about eight times the data downlink rate" of existing systems.... The resolution capabilities of the modified version will still be relatively high."
Broad, William J.
1. "Spy Satellites' Early Role Coming Clear." New York Times, 12 Sep. 1995, B5, B10.
Replays some of the recent Corona revelations, with large photographs to illustrate.
2. "U.S. Will Deploy Its Spy Satellites on Nature Mission." New York Times, 27 Nov. 1995, A1, A14 (N).
A new program "is directing spy satellites to study about two dozen ecologically sensitive sites around the world. Ultimately, it is to monitor about 500 sites.... The data will be archived for future generations of scientists and will remain secret for now to conceal the abilities of the nation's reconnaissance systems." Scientists involved in the project note that "spy satellites are better than civilian remote-sensing craft, like Landsat or Spot, which orbit the earth for the United States and France respectively.... For the fiscal year 1996, the Administration requested $17.6 million for the environmental work, and appropriations conferees allotted $15 million."
Cassata, Donna. "Spy Budget Cleared for Clinton; Plan for New Agency Curbed." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 23 Dec. 1995, 3894-3895.
On 21 December 1995, the House and the Senate passed the fiscal 1996 intelligence authorization bill. "The bill reportedly authorizes about $28 billion." In a compromise on the smallsat issue, DCI Deutch will be allowed to "appoint a special panel that will recommend how to proceed in acquiring small satellites."
Covault, Craig. "Cooperative Recon Gains Momentum." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 9 Oct. 1995, 28-29.
Officials from the United States, Russia, Europe, and Japan are discussing the possibility of combining the capabilities of classified reconnaissance spacecraft "for broader international utilization in crisis monitoring and peacekeeping operations."
Day, Dwayne A. "CORONA: A View Through the KEYHOLE." Intelligence Watch Report Quarterly 2, no. 1 (1995): 17-21.
This article concerns the declassification on 24 Feb. 1995 of CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD satellite programs and release of additional photographs at a 23-24 May 1995 symposium. The author includes five photographs, but the quality of reproduction limits their usefulness in this form.
Friedman, Norman. "World Naval Developments: Satellite Reconnaissance Upgraded." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 121, no. 12 (Dec. 1995): 91-92.
This article essentially declares victory for the tactical intelligence side in the tactical-strategic dichotomy that existed through the Cold War years in the design of U.S. reconnaissance satellites. "The next-generation U.S. photo-reconnaissance satellite, to be launched later this decade, will be modified -- given somewhat less resolution and a higher area-coverage rate -- to provide near real-time battlefield information. The change is the culmination of almost two decades of change, led by the U.S. Navy." An interesting admission by this author of The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapons Systems, is that the Tomahawk cruise missile was bought for ship vs. ship use in the absence of an effective targeting system.
Klass, Philip J.
1. "CIA Papers Reveal Spy Satellites' Role." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 16 Jan. 1995, 53, 55.
This article looks at what the 80 recently released National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) and the discussion at the joint CIA-Harvard conference reveal about the state of U.S. knowledge of Soviet ICBM research and deployment in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
2. "CIA Reveals Details of Early Spy Satellites." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 12 Jun. 1995, 167
Krygiel, Annette J. [D/CIO] "The US Imagery System: Accelerated Architecture Acquisition Initiative." American Intelligence Journal 16, no. 2/3 (Autumn/Winter 1995): 41-46.
The author discusses the Accelerated Architecture Acquisition Initiative (A3I) and Pilot A3I, designed to enhance support to consumers with imagery products.
McDonald, Robert A. "Corona: A Success for Space Reconnaissance, a Look into the Cold War, and a Revolution for Intelligence." Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 61, no. 6 (Jun. 1995): 689-720.
Mintz, John. "Lockheed Martin Works to Save Its Older Spies in the Skies." Washington Post, 29 Nov. 1995, D1.
Morrocco, John D. "CIA Slashing Satellite Network." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 16 Jan. 1995, 64.
Proquest: Outgoing CIA Director Woolsey "told a Senate committee that a 'radical restructuring' will halve the number of US reconnaissance satellites and will make even deeper cuts in ground stations."
Pike, Christopher Anson. "CANYON, RHYOLITE, and AQUACADE: U.S. Signals Intelligence Satellites in the 1970s." Spaceflight 37, no. 11 (Nov. 1995): 381-383.
Ross, William A. [LTC/USAF] "Space Support to the Warfighter." Military Intelligence 21, no. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1995): 23-25, 53.
"[T]he intelligence community has yet to develop a clear direction, policy, and doctrine regarding space application, system requirements, and training.... Desert Storm proved space-based capabilities are invaluable for threat warning and mission execution.... A significant lesson learned from Desert Storm is the criticality of operational electronic intelligence (ELINT) analysis.... MI professionals...currently lack the necessary tools and understanding to effectively support the warfighter with space intelligence."
Thomson, Allen. "Satellite Vulnerability: A Post-Cold War Issue?" Space Policy 2, no. 1 (Feb. 1995).
Wheelon, Albert D. "And the Truth Shall Keep You Free: Recollections by the First Deputy Director of Science and Technology." Studies in Intelligence 39, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 73-78.
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