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United States

To 1989

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Army Times. Editors. Modern American Secret Agents. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1964. [Petersen]

Bryan, George S. The Spy in America. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1943.

Petersen terms Bryan's work "a classic survey on U.S. espionage from the American Revolution to World War I." For Constantinides, the book "only provides some entertaining reading and is obviously not to be relied on for thoroughness or total accuracy."

Cline, Ray S. "The Intelligence Community." In Mandate for Leadership III: Policy Strategies for the 1990s, eds. Charles L. Heatherly and Burton Yale Pines. Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation, 1989. [Petersen]

Corson, William R. The Armies of Ignorance: The Rise of the American Intelligence Empire. New York: Dial Press/James Wade, 1977.

Petersen comments that this book is "[m]uch better than its title suggests." Focusing on the middle portion of this book, Constantinides notes that it "covers the political and legal bases, the struggles for control, the incessant political and bureaucratic quarrels and maneuvering, and the evolving relationships within the intelligence community and between it and the executive branch and Congress."

According to the NameBase reviewer, the "first half of this book is a history of U.S. intelligence from World War I up to the formation of the CIA in 1947, and the last 100 pages deal with the Revolutionary War up to World War I. This left about 200 pages in the middle that covered 30 years of CIA history.... Corson, an able academic historian and former intelligence professional..., brought his considerable experience and many inside contacts to bear on this discussion of intelligence issues."

Deming, Richard. American Spies. Racine, WI: Whitman, 1960. [Petersen]

Epstein, Edward Jay. Agency of Fear: Opiates and Political Power in America. New York: Putnam, 1977.

Petersen: "[P]rovides some coverage of intelligence and internal security aspects of the [drug] problem."

Foley, Rae. [pseud.] Famous American Spies. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1962. [Petersen]

Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri. American Espionage: From Secret Service to CIA. New York: Free Press, 1977. JK468I6J45

Petersen: Provides "thorough coverage of the early 20th Century in particular."

Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri. "American Intelligence: A Spur to Historical Genius?" Intelligence and National Security 3, no. 2 (1988): 332-337.

This is a review article of a number of books on intelligence published in the 1984-1987 period, including works by Blum, Laqueur, May, Ranelagh, Sinclair, Wark, and Winks.

Johnson, Loch K. "Making the Intelligence 'Cycle' Work." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 1, no. 4 (1986): 1-23.

The focus here is not on some theoretical construct but specifically on the CIA's "intelligence cycle" -- planning and direction, collection, processing, production and analysis, and dissemination. Although somewhat dated today, this remains a useful article.

Johnson, Loch K. "Strategic Intelligence: An American Perspective." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 3, no. 3 (1989): 299-332.

Kent, Sherman. Strategic Intelligence for American World Policy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1949. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1965. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1966. [pb]

Constantinides notes that this book had "both a wide and a profound influence on the development of U.S. intelligence after World War II." Writing in 1985, Pforzheimer called this book "dated, but not obsolete." That judgment remains valid, as does the description of the work as "still a classic, foresighted early work ... on the theory and ideal operation of national intelligence production." The 1966 paperback edition includes a lengthy preface by Dr. Kent, drawing on his experience as Chairman of the Board of National Estimates.

For a contemporaneous and critical review of Kent's Strategic Intelligence, see Willmoore Kendall, "The Function of Intelligence," World Politics 1, no. 6 (Jul. 1949). Latter day insight on that debate is offered by Jack Davis, "The Kent-Kendall Debate of 1949," Studies in Intelligence 35, no. 2 (Summer 1991): 37-50. See also, Donald P. Steury, ed., Sherman Kent and the Board of National Estimates: Collected Essays (Washington, DC: History Staff, Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1994).

Kirkpatrick, Lyman B., Jr. The U.S. Intelligence Community: Foreign Policy and Domestic Activities. New York: Hill & Wang, 1973. 1975. [pb]

Clark comment: Kirkpatrick rose to be CIA Inspector General and Exective Director-Comptroller; and this work is useful for the period 1947-1965, when he was with the CIA. Even with its datedness, Pforzheimer calls the book "recommended reading for the period covered by an author in a unique position to comment."

MacCloskey, Monro. The American Intelligence Community. New York: Rosen, 1967.

Wilcox: "General popular account of American intelligence operations, policies."

Pettee, George S. The Future of American Secret Intelligence. Washington, DC: Infantry Journal Press, 1946.

Pforzheimer says this book "has historical value in its trailblazing discussion of specific intelligence substantive and organizational problems ... prior to formation of the CIA." This assessment is echoed by Constantinides, who comments that, while the book is dated, it is "of historical value for the role it played in formulating ideas and ultimately the organization of U.S. intelligence in the postwar era." However, Jeffreys-Jones, I&NS 12.1/38/fn. 24, is of the opinion that "Pettee's book was symptomatic of contemporary thought rather than a seminal influence on it."

Phillips, David Atlee. Careers in Secret Operations: How to Be a Federal Intelligence Officer. Frederick, MD: University Publications. of America, 1984. Bethesda, MD: Stone Trail Press, 1984. [pb]

Pforzheimer: "Phillips ... has written a unique and valuable handbook for those interested in making any of the various aspects of intelligence their profession."

 

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