OVERVIEWS

General

1990s

A - H

Adams, James. The New Spies: Exploring the Frontiers of Espionage. London: Hutchinson, 1994.

Clark comment: Adams is the Washington Bureau Chief of The Sunday Times. Surveillant 3.6 notes that the author discusses the "steps the intelligence community has taken to identify new roles..., movements to bring back the traditional spy..., [and] the machinations of Whitehall and the 'forcing out of the shadows' of MI5 and MI6."

To Herman, I&NS 9.4, Adams has produced a "journalist's book about intelligence that is not full of the customary shock-horror frissons. This ... businesslike production ... shows some feel for intelligence organization." It is "nice to find the case for intelligence after the Cold War put cogently in a book intended for a wide readership." But Adams makes "rather superficial recommendations.... The important question is how to make intelligence work as a community, not how to reorganize it."

Peake, WIR 13.4, comments that the author's "distorted ideas expressed at the outset[] give way to more balanced descriptions, if not assessments.... When it comes to fixing problems, Adams falls into the trap that changes in organization are the solution.... He also concludes that some kinds of intelligence agencies are necessary in the new world order.... This is ... a provocative book and should be read and discussed."

Bates, Dick. "The Intelligence Profession and Its Professional and Fraternal Organizations." In In the Name of Intelligence: Essays in Honor of Walter Pforzheimer, eds. Hayden B. Peake and Samuel Halpern, 111-131. Washington, DC: NIBC Press, 1994.

Bozeman, Adda B. Strategic Intelligence and Statecraft: Selected Essays. Washington, DC: Brassey's, 1992.

See C. Adamitis ["Addi"] Keim, "The Missing Link: Adda Bozeman on U.S. Strategic Intelligence," Intelligencer 13, no. 2 (Winter-Spring 2003): 37-44.

Clark comment: This is a collection of eight intellectual and intelligent essays: "International Order in a Multicultural World"; "War and the Clash of Ideas"; "Covert Action and Foreign Policy in World Politics"; "Traditions of Political Warfare and Low-Intensity Conflict in Totalitarian Russia and China: A Comparative Study of Continuity and Change"; "Statecraft and Intelligence in the Non-Western World"; "Knowledge and Method in Comparative Intelligence Studies of Non-Western Societies"; "American Policy and the Illusion of Congruent Values"; and "Strategic Intelligence in Cold Wars of Ideas."

Allen, DIJ 1.2, comments that this is a "remarkable" and "fascinating book," while FILS 11.6 finds it "well worth reading." Surveillant 2.6 calls the book "illuminating.... Bozeman, a professor at Sarah Lawrence College, explains how strategic intelligence is the key to successful statecraft in foreign affairs." Warren, Intelligencer 14.2 (Winter-Spring 2005), says that this book "is worth reading by anyone who wants a different perspective on the relationship of Intelligence to American foreign policy."

Economist, 16 Jan. 1993, says Bozeman recognizes that "intelligence and the making of foreign policy have to be interwoven with each other.... This is no ordinary book of reprinted essays: it deserves to be closely studied, in all places where high policy is made." According to a MI 20.2 reviewer, the "most profound assertion the author makes is that the West does not understand the value systems of other cultures.... This is a wonderful book for students of political science, political intelligence, and policy formation."

Carmel, Hesi, ed. Intelligence for Peace: The Role of Intelligence in Times of Peace. Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 1999.

Kruh, Cryptologia 24.2, calls this an "important collection of articles by distinguished experts in intelligence and security." It "provides insights to the role of intelligence in times of conciliation and political process and offers an insider's view of how intelligence and secret diplomacy serve in times of peace."

Dearth, Douglas, and R. Thomas Goodden, eds. Strategic Intelligence: Theory and Application. 2d ed. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1995.

Derian, James Der. "Anti-Diplomacy, Intelligence Theory and Surveillance Practice." Intelligence and National Security 8, no. 3 (Jul. 1993): 29-51.

The author uses a "post-structualist approach to explore ... the power of surveillance.... [A]s surveillance intensifies, the truth becomes not clearer but more ambiguous.... [I]t is ... technical intelligence ... that constitute[s] a new regime of power in international relations."

Devereux, Tony. Messenger Gods of Battle. Radio, Radar, Sonar: The Story of Electronics in War. London: Brassey's, 1991.

Herman, I&NS 7.2, takes issue with the author's conflating of "electronic warfare" and "electronics in war" and his inclusion of sonar in his subject. Nevertheless, the reviewer notes that, for those new to the subject, the book is "a good exposition of physical principles and the technological history."

Eoyang, Carson. "Models of Espionage." In Citizen Espionage: Studies in Trust and Betrayal, eds. Theodore S. Sarbin, Ralph M. Carney, and Carson Eoyang, 69-91. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1994.

Felix, Christopher [James McCargar]. A Short Course in the Secret War. New York: Dutton, 1963. The Spy and His Masters: A Short Course in the Secret War. London: Secker & Warburg, 1963. 2d ed. New York: Dell, 1988. [pb] With new intro. Lanham, MD: Madison via University Press of America, 1992.

"James G. McCargar, 86, an author, diplomat and spy whose 1963 book on the craft of covert operations continues to be recommended by the U.S. intelligence community, died" on 30 May 2007. Patricia Sullivan, "James G. McCargar -- Author, Spy," Washington Post, 13 Jun. 2007, B6.

To Constantinides, Short Course is an "outstanding book on intelligence tradecraft and practice.... The second part [of the book] recounts the author's experiences in Hungary in 1946-1947. His description of Communist security, takeover, and other techniques is especially important." Pforzheimer notes that the book covers "various aspects of covert action, clandestine collection, and intelligence tradecraft. The first half ... is recommended."

Licklider, Intelligencer 7.1, says that one reason for this book's "longevity is that it explains the basic concepts of intelligence better than any other. Clear distinctions between intelligence and espionage, knowing and secret knowing, and counterintelligence and security" make it possible "to better understand the way intelligence works in any environment." For MacFarland, CIRA Newsletter 26.1, Short Course "may be the best of a small number of treatises that discuss the process and philosophy of the intelligence business.... Felix's writing is concise, witty and engaging, and the book is filled with entertaining anecdotes."

Foot, M.R.D. "What Use Are Secret Services?" In In the Name of Intelligence: Essays in Honor of Walter Pforzheimer, eds. Hayden B. Peake and Samuel Halpern, 277-282. Washington, DC: NIBC Press, 1994.

Fowler, Will. The Secret World of the Spy: Stories of Espionage, Deception, and Discovery. Philadelphia, PA: Running Press, 1994.

Surveillant 4.2 identifies this as a large-format, photographic album. The book "contains numerous misspellings, particularly of names."

Herman, Michael. "The Development of National Intelligence." Foreign Intelligence Literary Scene 12, no. 3 (1993): 3-4.

Excerpts from article "Governmental Intelligence: Its Evolution and Role," Journal of Economic and Social Intelligence 2, no. 2 (1992): 91-113. With the Cold War, "[c]landestine collection became established as a substantial peacetime activity.... [There was a] trend toward central intelligence organizations.... [The] influence [of intelligence] is still greatest when assessing force and threats of force."

Herman, Michael. Intelligence Power in Peace and War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Freeman, I&NS 12.2, proclaims that this book "has an elegance and perspective that raises the study of intelligence to new levels.... The organization is methodical, the analysis meticulous, the range of sources extraordinary and the writing crisp and lucid.... It is one of the few weaknesses of the book that [Herman] has decided not to explore the relevance of his analysis for questions of democratic accountability."

In a highly laudatory review, Westerfield, IJI&C 10.3, states that "[n]o one who is serious about intelligence studies should fail to become familiar with this book." The emphasis of Herman's work is inclined "toward the analysis function and toward interface with policymakers." Additionally, his chapter on liaison is "excellent, extraordinarily frank."

Hoffman, History 26.1, says that the author "captures the essence of the intelligence mandate and argues for its enduring place" among the needs of governments. In the process, Herman makes the case against "market-driven collection," a faddish concept that "does not hold to the more tangential world of intelligence." This is "a learned text" that is "thoughful and well-conceived."

For Latawski, Rusi Journal, Apr. 1998, this is "a very thought-provoking and important work for understanding how an intelligence community works, when it fails and how it might work better.... Herman offers frank views on problems encountered in various components of the intelligence community." However, the "book is not an easy read."

According to Hess, IIHSG [International Intelligence History Association] Newsletter 7.1 (Summer 1999) and JIH 1.1, this "is a scholarly study and for those readers who want to know about the internal workings of intelligence it provides more fascination than many of the 'cloak and dagger' spy stories.... [This] thoroughly researched, well-structured, and very readable book is highly recommendable."

Horowitz, Richard. "A Framework for Understanding Intelligence." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 8, no. 4 (Winter 1995): 389-409.

The author finds that there are inherent problems "in the nature of trying to comprehend an opponent and foretell his actions." In addition, the "game theory model of 'prisoner's dilemma' illustrates how one's actions can be inexorably intertwined with another's, yet foreknowledge of the other's actions, though exceedingly important, is not necessarily helpful." The author concludes that intelligence is "a necessary element of decisionmaking," but is "limited by the realities of the human condition."

Hutchinson, Harold R. "Intelligence: Escape from Prisoner's Dilemma." Intelligence and National Security 7, no. 3 (Jul. 1992): 327-334.

The "prisoner's dilemma" game theory model is a static, one-time situation. Many situations between nations might be seen more as a motion picture, rather than as a snapshot (my analogy, not the author's). When played as an iterative game, it is possible for a progressive stability of cooperation to emerge. Under such conditions, "intelligence is a means by which the players can establish and sustain a cooperative relationship.... Without intelligence, the optimal strategy choice of conditional cooperation is not possible."

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