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Gelb, Norman. Enemy in the Shadows: The World of Spies and Spying. New York: Hippocrene, 1976. [Wilcox]

Gibson, Walter Brown, ed. The Fine Art of Spying. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1967.

Wilcox identifies this as a "[p]opular account of espionage & counter-espionage."

Godson, Roy, ed. Comparing Foreign Intelligence: The U.S., the USSR, the U.K. and the Third World. Washington, DC: Pergamon-Brassey's, 1988.

Contents: Roy Godson, "Introduction: The New Study of Intelligence"; Kenneth G. Robertson, "The Study of Intelligence in the United States"; Christopher Andrew, "Historical Research on the British Intelligence Community"; John J. Dziak, "The Study of the Soviet Intelligence and Security System"; Dale F. Eickelman, "Intelligence in an Arab Gulf State" [Oman]; Adda Bozeman. "Political Intelligence in Non-Western Societies: Suggestions for Comparative Research."

Gollumb, Joseph.

1. Spies. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1928.

http://www.cloakanddagger.com/dagger: "A collection of spy stories from ancient times up to WWI."

2. Armies of Spies. New York: Macmillan, 1939.

Wilcox identifies this as a "[p]re-World War II account of spies and spying, particularly with respect to Germany."

Handel, Michael I. "Leaders and Intelligence." Intelligence and National Security 3, no. 3 (Jul. 1988): 3-39.

This is the author's introductory essay to "Special Issue on Leaders and Intelligence," Intelligence and National Security 3, no. 3 (Jul. 1988).

Handel, Michael I., ed.

1. "Special Issue on Leaders and Intelligence." Intelligence and National Security 3, no. 3 (Jul. 1988): entire issue.

2. Leaders and Intelligence. London: Frank Cass, 1989.

This book was first published as a special issue of the journal Intelligence and National Security 3, no. 3 (Jul. 1988) (see above).

Healey, Tim. Spies. London: Macdonald Educational, 1978. [Petersen]

Hilsman, Roger. Strategic Intelligence and National Decisions. Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1966.

According to Pforzheimer, this "controversial academic study on the theory of intelligence is provocative, but not easy reading." Not all intelligence specialists agree with Hilsman's views. The book was written before Hilsman's stint as Director/INR. To Constantinides, "[s]ections of the book vary in quality and style"; the part that "describes the attitudes of various categories of individuals, from decision makers to academics and critics of intelligence" is probably the best.

Hinchley, Vernon. Spy Mysteries Unveiled. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1963. London: Harrap, 1963.

Constantinides: "Hinchley either was egregiously wrong about or lacked credible sources" for much of what he wrote.

Irving, Clifford, and Herbert Burkholz. Spy: The Story of Modern Espionage. New York: Macmillan, 1969. [Chambers]

Irwin, William Henry, and Thomas M. Johnson. What You Should Know About Spies and Saboteurs. New York: Norton, 1943. [Wilcox]

Joesten, Joachim. They Call It Intelligence: Spies and Spying Techniques Since World War II. London: Abelard-Schuman, 1963.

The author is best known for his numerous books on the John Kennedy assassination, in which he argues for a right-wing plot. This earlier work is what would be expected from someone of that particular ilk.

Kirkpatrick, Lyman B., Jr. "Intelligence and Counterintelligence." In Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy: Studies of the Principal Movements and Ideas, ed. Alexander DeConde, vol. I, 417-427. 3 vols. New York: Scribner's, 1978.

Knightley, Phillip. The Second Oldest Profession: The Spy as Bureaucrat, Patriot, Fantasist, and Whore. London: Andre Deutsch, 1986. The Second Oldest Profession. New York: Norton, 1987. The Second Oldest Profession: Spies and Spying in the Twentieth Century. New York: Penguin, 1988. [pb]

Valcourt, IJI&C 1.4, notes that "the specialized press ... has been strongly critical" of this work. The author has made "selective use of incomplete information to create a distorted picture of the intelligence profession." This is "a major work of semi-fiction masquerading as non-fiction." Sexton is kinder, calling Knightley's book a "[r]eadable and stimulating history of the British, American, Russian and German intelligence services since 1909."

Knott, James E. "Secrecy and Intelligence in a Free Society." Studies in Intelligence 19, no. 2 (Summer 1975): 1-8.

A "free society will relinquish some of its freedom if that is necessary, but it will wish to see readjustments take place once such relinquishment is no longer necessary."

Lewis, Julian. Changing Directions. London: Sherwood, 1988.

Uttley, I&NS 17.2/22/fn.7, refers to this work as providing "excellent coverage of scientific intelligence."

Liston, Robert A. The Dangerous World of Spies and Spying. New York: Platt & Munk, 1967. [Petersen]

Maclean, Fitzroy. Take Nine Spies. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1978. New York: Atheneum, 1978.

Constantinides: Maclean studies nine spies with regard to personality and motive -- Mata Hari, Azef, Redl, Sorge, Cicero, Lonsdale, Philby, Penkovsky, and "William Martin" (Montagu's pre-Sicily invasion deception). "This is good reading," although no new insights are offered.

Marrin, Albert. The Secret Armies: Spies, Counterspies and Saboteurs. New York: Atheneum Children's Books, 1985.

According to Sexton, this book, written for the younger audience, "relates familiar and sometimes apocryphal stories of espionage, deception and covert warfare."

Maurer, Alfred C., Marion D. Tunstall, and James M. Keagle, eds. Intelligence: Policy and Process. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1985.

Wilcox: "Domestic & international factors, government structures, political considerations."

Newman, Bernard C.

1. Epics of Espionage. New York: Philosophical Library, 1951. [Wilcox]

2. The World of Espionage. London: British Book Center, 1963. [Wilcox]

Nolen, Barbara, ed. Spies, Spies, Spies. New York: Watts, 1965. 2000.

From publisher: "The stories in this book, both fact and fiction based on fact, have ... been chosen to illustrate the great variety of activities which are carried on by those who operate under the name of 'spy.'"

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