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General

Pre-1990s

A - F

Altavilla, Enrico. The Art of Spying. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1967. London: Hale, 1968.

Constantinides sees the author alternating "little-known facts and trenchant observations with erroneous and even preposterous ones." This book "could serve as an end-of-course assignment on post-World War II espionage in which students are assigned the task of identifying errors in the text."

Andrew, Christopher, and David Dilks, eds. The Missing Dimension: Governments and Intelligence Communities in the Twentieth Century. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1984. London: Macmillan, 1984.

Clark comment: This work brings together 11 wide-ranging scholarly essays on the role of intelligence in this century. As with most such works, it is necessary to strain to find a unifying theme; nevertheless, the self-contained nature of the individual essays allows the reader to pick and choose only those that may be of specific interest.

Bamford, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 41.9 (Oct. 1985), notes that while "the orientation of the chapters is decidedly British, there is nevertheless much information of interest to the American reader." Most of this work "is devoted to the early days of espionage, long before technical means became the dominant method of intelligence collection." A fresh look at British postwar cryptology and GCHQ "would have been far more useful" than a rehash on Philby, Blunt, and the others. Nonetheless, "the book makes an important contribution to a neglected area of history."

Andrew, Christopher, and Jeremy Noakes, eds. Intelligence and International Relations, 1900-1945. Exeter, UK: Exeter University Publications, 1987.

Sexton notes that the title of this edited volume is somewhat misleading, since most of the essays deal with military operations and intelligence rather than international relations per se. Nonetheless, the essays "provide insight into the development of political and military intelligence since the turn of the century." For Watt, I&NS 3.2, this work marks "the emergence of a distinctive school of British writers into the field of intelligence studies."

Archer, Jules. Superspies: The Secret Side of Government. New York: Delacorte, 1977.

Constantinides calls this "a poor piece of work.... The chapters on the CIA are loaded with errors, and the cut-and-paste quality of the book is manifest."

Calvi, Fabrizio, and Olivier Schmidt. Intelligences secretes -- Annales de l'espionnage. Paris: Hachette, 1988.

Rurarz-Huygens, IJI&C 2.2 says that this book is "full of nonsense as far as the interpretation of facts goes," and its "documentation ... cannot ... withstand serious scrutiny."

Charters, David A. "Security Services in an Open Society." Conflict Quarterly 1, no. 2 (Spring 1980): 8-14.

Cooper, H.H.A., and Lawrence J. Redlinger. Making Spies: A Talent Spotter's Handbook. Boulder, CO: Paladin, 1986.

Peake, IJI&C 4.1: "[E]xamples of the authors' lack of grasp of their subject abound."

De Gramont, Sanche. The Secret War: The Story of International Espionage Since World War II. New York: Putnam, 1962.

Pforzheimer: This book surveys the activities of CIA and foreign intelligence organizations in the 1950s. It is "considered worth reading," particularly for its case studies.

Deindorfer, Robert G., ed. The Spies: Great True Stories of Espionage. New York: Fawcett, 1949. New York: Fawcett, 1969. [pb]

This is a "popular," anecdotally presented string of spy stories.

Dulles, Allen. The Craft of Intelligence. New York: Harper & Row, 1963. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1963. New York: Signet Books, 1965. [pb] Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1977. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1985. Guilford, CT: Lyons Press, 2006.

Clark comment: This is one of the classic pieces of intelligence literature. Not everyone agrees with every Dulles statement about intelligence, but the book holds up remarkably well decades after it was published in a time with vastly different views about intelligence.

Frank G. Wisner, Studies 8.1 (Winter 1964), sees this as "a most valuable book, one which ... should be read ... by all persons having a serious professional interest in the subject of intelligence, and hopefully also by a wide segment of the general public." Nevertheless, there is an "imbalance" in the work "in favor of intelligence tradecraft ... and to the disadvantage of certain of the most important functions and problems of the research and analysis and estimative process." Wisner shares a number of additional thoughts on the practice of intelligence and counterintelligence, which are well worth reading apart from their role in this review article.

According to Pforzheimer, Dulles touches on "some of the earlier history of intelligence, examines many aspects of intelligence requirements, collection, and production, describes the Communist intelligence services, and explores the uses of intelligence." Petersen views The Craft of Intelligence as "[o]bservations based on the career experience of a foremost US practitioner who served as DCI 1953-1961. The 1965 paperback edition ... includes additional material."

To Constantinides, the book is "a veritable storehouse on the philosophy of intelligence and on Dulles's general approach to it." Beyond that, however, "this work is a realistic picture of intelligence." Nevertheless, later information has dated some of his accounts, such as those of Cicero and the Berlin Tunnel. After noting that the 2006 edition is the same as the revised 1965 edition, Peake, Studies 50.4 (2006), comments that "the book is an easy read and excellent introduction to the profession, as it deals with both the history and functional aspects of the topic."

For a brief look at some of Dulles' ideas, see Allen Dulles, "The Craft of Intelligence," Harper's 226 (Apr. 1963): 128-174.

Dulles, Allen, ed. Great True Spy Stories. New York: Harper & Row, 1968. London: Collins, 1968. New York: Ballentine, 1982. [pb] Book Sales Inc., 1992.

Surveillant 2.6 calls this "[o]ne of the best -- if not the best -- anthologies of its kind." Pforzheimer says that "Dulles' foreword and introductory comments to each section are especially valuable." According to Petersen, Dulles' "[i]ntroductory material includes important insights." And Constantinides wishes those comments "were not so brief."

Epstein, Samuel, and Beryl Williams. The Real Book About Spies. Garden City, NY: Garden City Books, 1953.

Wilcox: "General popular account of spies and spying."

Farago, Ladislas. War of Wits: The Anatomy of Espionage and Intelligence. New York: Funk & Wagnells, 1954.

Pforzheimer, Studies 5.2 (Spring 1961), comments that even though this work is "[m]arred by theoretical crudities, factual inaccuracies, and uncritical journalism," it is still "useful as a composite of the most important information on intelligence doctrine publicly available in 1954."

Farson, Stuart. "Schools of Thought: National Perceptions of Intelligence." Conflict Quarterly 9, no 2 (Spring 1989): 52-104.

Finlay, Winifred, and Gillian Hancock. Spies and Secret Agents. London: Kaye & Ward, 1977.

Wilcox: "Popular account of spies, secret agents, intelligence."

FitzGibbon, Constantine.

1. Secret Intelligence in the Twentieth Century. London: Hart-Davis, MacGibbon, 1976. New York: Stein & Day, 1977.

For Constantinides, this book has "many errors of fact and judgment," and the author "often comments without providing the necessary supporting documentation." Sexton refers to it as a "[w]ell written account of thrice-told tales of espionage."

2. "Spies, Spies, Spies." Encounter 45 (Aug. 1975): 69-75.

Petersen: "Observations on modern intelligence."

French, Scott, and Lee Lapin. Spy Game: Winning Through Super Technology. Boulder, CO: CEP, 1985. [Petersen]

Friedman, Richard, and David Miller. The Intelligence War: Penetrating the World of Today's Advanced Technology Conflict. London: Salamander Books, 1983.

Furse, George A. Information in War: Its Acquisition and Transmission. London: Clowes, 1895.

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