OTHER COUNTRIES

Turkey

Albayrak, Ayla. "Turkey Passes Spy Law." Wall Street Journal, 18 Feb. 2012. [http://www.wsj.com]

On 17 February 2012, the Turkish government "passed emergency legislation blocking senior Turkish intelligence officials from being called to testify in a criminal court." The bill "marked the latest move in what appeared to be a tussle between the country's two security forces, the police and the national intelligence agency, the MIT."

Associated Press. "Turkish PM Meets With CIA Director." 13 Dec. 2005. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

On 13 December 2005, CIA director Porter Goss met with Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan "for talks that were expected to focus on a Kurdish rebel group [the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)] that is considered a terrorist organization by the United States and the European Union. Goss has been holding closed meetings with Turkish intelligence and security officials since his arrival" on 11 December 2005.

CNN. "Sources: U.S. Spy Planes Watching Iraqi-Turkish Border." 31 Oct. 2007. [http://www.cnn.com]

U.S. military sources said on 31 October 2007 that "American U2 reconnaissance planes have been flying over the Turkey-Iraq border to observe military movements.... Pentagon spokesman Geoff Morrell confirmed [on 31 October 2007] that U.S. military and intelligence communities are sharing information with Turkey to help them fight members of the Kurdistan Workers' Party, or PKK, who have made cross-border attacks."

Deger, Evren. "Bold Step against Terrorism: Turkey to Launch Spy Satellite." New Anatolian (Ankara), 12 Nov. 2007. [http://www.thenewanatolian.com]

The Turkish Defense Industry Executive Committee meeting on 23 November 2007 "is expected to give the go ahead" for the Gokturk spy satellite project. The first satellite is expected to be launched in 2008. It "will contribute to the military needs of information gathering and will be the first ever spy satellite to be launched by Turkey.... Research and Development work have already been started" on additional satellite systems, including a radar satellite. "Turkey plans to put about 15 satellites into orbit in the coming two to two and a half years."

Dimitrakis, Panagiotis. "Greek Military Intelligence and the Turkish 'Threat' During the 1987 Aegean Crisis." Journal of Modern Greek Studies 25 (2007): 99-127.

The author argues that "during the 1987 crisis, Turkish armed forces did not constitute an imminent threat to Greece despite the hostile rhetoric of Ankara. Greek military intelligence was able to confirm Turkish passivity and inform Greek Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou not to expect any Turkish hostile act over the Aegean Sea continental shelf before the Greeks might have taken precipitous action."

Dimitrakis, Panagiotis. "Intelligence for Crisis Management: The Case of the January 1996 Greek-Turkish Crisis." European Security 17, no. 4 (Dec. 2008): 455-493.

From abstract: "[T]he author assesses the role of Greek military intelligence" during the January 1996 Greek-Turkish crisis over the sovereignty status of two Southeast Aegean islets. He "shows that during the crisis hours of 31 January 1996, the lack of tactical intelligence on Turkish deployment had a direct impact on the assessment of the operational status of the Greek armed forces and on the planned crisis response."

Gunter, Michael M. "Susurluk: The Connection Between Turkey's Intelligence Community and Organized Crime." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 11, no. 2 (Summer 1998): 119-141.

The author explores the existence within Turkey of an "illegal, secret organization" linking state security officials, right-wing politicians, and organized crime.

Gunter, Michael M. "United States-Turkish Intelligence Liaison Since World War II." Journal of Intelligence History 3, no. 1 (Summer 2003). [http://www.intelligence-history.org]

From abstract: "This article analyzes many specific examples of intelligence liaison between the United States and Turkey since World War II."

Hacaoglu, Selcan. "Turkish Spy Agency Raises Profile." Associated Press, 7 Aug. 1999.

"Turkey has raised the profile of its spy agency," the National Intelligence Organization, better known by its Turkish initials MIT, "sending its agents abroad to capture the leaders of the Kurdish separatist movement."

Komisar, Lucy. "Turkey's Terrorists: A CIA Legacy Lives On." The Progressive, Apr. 1997, 24-27.

According to the author, the CIA ended its funding of stay-behind organizations in Turkey in the 1970s. However, the organizations remained in place and spearheaded rightist attacks on leftist groups and individuals.

Lefebvre, Stéphane. "Turkey's Intelligence Community in Changing Times." International Journal 51, no. 1 (Winter 2005-2006): 105-124.

Turkey "has a well-developed, experienced, and relatively efficient intelligence apparatus. While it is dominated by the National Intelligence Organization (Milli Istihbarat Teskilati -- MIT), which has a broad mandate both at home and abroad to gather intelligence related to national security, it is equally well served by intelligence organizations focused on criminal and security intelligence gathering at home, such as the General Directorate of Security (Emniyet Genel Müdürlügü -- EGM)."

Macfie, Alexander Lyon.

1. "British Intelligence and the Turkish National Movement, 1919-22." Middle Eastern Studies 37, no. 1 (Jan. 2001): 1-16.

2. "British Views of the Turkish National Movement in Anatolia, 1919-22." Middle Eastern Studies 38, no. 4 (2002): 27-46.

Sonyel, Salahi R. "Kurtulus Savasi Döneminde Istanbul Kabineleri ve Ingiliz Istihbarat Servisi" [The Istanbul Cabinets and the British Intelligence Service During The War of Liberation]. Belleten 65, no. 243 (2001): 665-712.

Tauber, Eliezer. "The Capture of the NILI Spies: The Turkish Version." Intelligence and National Security 6, no. 4 (Oct. 1991): 701-710.

U.S. Department of State. Office of the Historian. Gen. ed., David S. Patterson. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964-1968. Vol. XVI. Cyprus; Greece; Turkey. Ed., James E. Miller. Washington, DC: GPO, 1999. [http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1964-68v16]

U.S. Department of State. Office of the Historian. Gen. ed., Edward C. Keefer. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969-1976. Volume XXIX. Eastern Europe; Eastern Mediterranean, 1969–1972. Eds., James E. Miller, Douglas E. Selvage, and Laurie Van Hook. Washington, DC: GPO, 2007. [http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1969-76v29]

From "Preface": "The coverage of this volume is split almost equally between Eastern Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean [i.e., Greece, Cyprus, and Turkey].... The second chapter [of the Eastern Europe section] is ... a general one. It deals with U.S. Government policy and the bureaucratic debate about -- and ultimately, the decision on how to fund -- Radio Free Europe ... and Radio Liberty."

Weiner, Tim. "U.S. Played Key Role in Capture of Kurd Rebel, Officials Say." New York Times, 20 Feb. 1999. [http://www.nytimes.com]

The capture by Turkish commandos in Nairobi on 15 February 1999 of Kurdistan Workers Party leader Abdullah Ocalan was aided by the United States. "U.S. diplomatic pressure backed by intelligence gathering helped to put Ocalan in flight from a safe haven in Syria, to persuade nation after nation to refuse him sanctuary and to drive him into an increasingly desperate search for a city of refuge." Although officials insist that "the United States had no 'direct involvement' in the Ocalan case," surveillance information from U.S. "intelligence officers and law-enforcement agents ... gave Turkish commandos the chance to capture Ocalan with the help of Kenyan security officers."

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