OTHER COUNTRIES

Taiwan

AFP. "Man Indicted for Allegedly Leaking National Secrets." China Post (Taipei), 15 Nov. 2007. [http://www.chinapost.com.tw]

A spokesman for the Prosecutors' Office of the High Court said on 14 November 2007 that "Pang Ta-wei, a former deputy section chief of the Military Intelligence Bureau, was indicted" on 17 September 2007 on "charges of collecting and leaking classified information" in a book he published in 2004. The Liberty Times newspaper said that "[a]mong the alleged secrets are documents relating to his unit's spying operation on rival China from 1992 through 1997."

Associated Press. "Taiwanese Spy Plane Pilots Honored for Perilous Cold War Missions." International Herald Tribune, 4 Jul. 2007. [http://www.iht.com]

From 1953 to 1967, Taiwanese pilots known as "The Black Bats" flew "more than 800 sorties over the Chinese mainland, dropping agents, testing radar responses and collecting air samples from suspected nuclear test sites." At a gathering in June 2007 in Hsinchu, northern Taiwan, "hundreds of Taiwanese observed a minute of silence for the 148 Black Bats who never returned from their missions and paid an emotional tribute to the few surviving members of the group." According to the veterans, "[t]he CIA provided the aircraft [and the training] for the missions.... They proudly display photographs taken with Ray Cline, then the agency's Taipei station chief."

See also, William B. Tomlinson, "Chinese Industry from the Air," Studies in Intelligence 11, no. 2 (Spring 1967): 37-50; and Benjamin Yeh, "Taiwan's Cold War Spy Pilots Reveal Secret Missions," AFP, 23 Aug. 2010.

Ball, Desmond J. "Signals Intelligence in Taiwan." Jane's Intelligence Review, Nov. 1995, 506-510.

Boraz, Steven C., and Thomas C. Bruneau. "Reforming Intelligence: Democracy and Effectiveness." Journal of Democracy 17, no. 3 (Jul. 2006): 28-42.

"Democratizing or newly democratic countries ... must deal with the ... arduous task of transforming intelligence bureaucracies that once served undemocratic regimes." South Africa and Taiwan "have met the challenge of intelligence reform in varying ways, while Russia "has seen an intelligence establishment inherited from Soviet days promote a recent backslide toward authoritarianism."

Bruneau, Thomas C., and Steven C. Boraz, eds. Reforming Intelligence: Obstacles to Democratic Control and Effectiveness. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2007.

According to Peake, Studies 52.1 (Mar. 2008) and Intelligencer 16.1 (Spring 2008), this book's 13 chapters include "studies that discuss democratic control and effectiveness in three Western nations -- the United States, the United Kingdom, and France -- and seven new democracies -- Brazil, Taiwan, Argentina, Romania, South Africa, Russia, and the Philippines." Reforming Intelligence "is well documented, well written, and should serve as a foundation for studying this persistent problem."

Reddig, NIPQ 23.4 (Sep. 2007), calls this a "useful and thought provoking compendium of case studies," dealing with "the challenge of maintaining an intelligence establishment in a democratic framework." For Skarstedt, NIJ 1.1 (2009), "[a]ll of the authors provide outstanding analysis of their various subjects, and this book is a comprehensive study of intelligence reform and its problems. The commoin theme shared by all of the authors is that intelligence must be closely controlled."

Chen, Chern. "The Intelligence Connection: West Germany and Taiwan in the Cold War." Journal of Intelligence History 8, no. 2 (Winter 2008-2009). [http://www.intelligence-history.org/jih/journal.html]

Ch'en Li-fu. Eds. and comps., Sidney H. Chang and Ramon H. Myers. The Storm Clouds Clear Over China: The Memoir of Ch'en Li-fu, 1900-1993. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1994.

Henderson, Robert D'A. "Transforming KMT Intelligence on Taiwan." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 15, no. 2 (Summer 2002): 275-288.

Ostensibly a review article, this is an excellent, short overview of the relationship between politics and security in KMT-controlled Taiwan.

Kaplan, David E. Fires of the Dragon: Politics, Murder, and the Kuomintang. New York: Atheneum, 1992.

Marks, Thomas A. Counterevolution in China: Wang Sheng and the Kuomintang. London and Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 1998.

For Rawnsley, I&NS 13.4, the author "provides a fascinating insight into the little known world of Chinese 'political warfare' ... in China itself and in Taiwan.... The book's weaknesses are few, and derive mainly from its author's lack of detachment from the subject." Henderson, IJI&C 15.2, notes that this is an exceptionally well-documented biography of Gen. Wang Sheng, "who spent over 35 years in the senior echelons of the KMT security structures." The author also "surveys the development and functions of the General Political Warfare Department (GPWD)..., under KMT rule in Taiwan, that Wang Sheng oversaw for almost 25 years."

Pomfret, John. "Taiwanese Mistake Led to Three Spies' Execution." Washington Post, 20 Feb. 2000.

This is the end-piece on the exposure of a ROC spy ring in Beijing in September 1999.

Rawnsley, Gary D. "Taiwan's Propaganda Cold War: The Offshore Islands Crises of 1954 and 1958." Intelligence and National Security 14, no. 4 (Winter 1999): 82-101.

"[M]ost of the ROC's propaganda at this time was designed for American, rather than Chinese audiences."

Tomlinson, William B. "Chinese Industry from the Air." Studies in Intelligence 11, no. 2 (Spring 1967): 37-50.

The "almost complete blackout of information" from China following the collapse of the Great Leap Forward in 1961 "would have left the economic-industrial intelligence officer quite desperate had it not been for the arrival on the scene of daring Chinese Nationalist pilots flying used U-2 aircraft." See also, Associated Press, "Taiwanese Spy Plane Pilots Honored for Perilous Cold War Missions," International Herald Tribune, 4 Jul. 2007; and Benjamin Yeh, "Taiwan's Cold War Spy Pilots Reveal Secret Missions," AFP, 23 Aug. 2010.

Waterman, Shaun. "U.S. Diplomat Pleads to Secrecy Charges." United Press International, 12 Dec. 2005. [http://www.upi.com]

Donald Keyser pleaded guilty on 12 December 2005 "to mishandling classified documents and lying about his relationship with a Taiwanese intelligence officer." He is scheduled for sentencing in February 2006. According to a plea agreement, Keyser had a personal relationship between 2002 and 2004 with "Isabelle Cheng, an employee of [Taiwan's] espionage agency, the National Intelligence Bureau."

See Spy Cases/U.S./Keyser.

Yeh, Benjamin. "Taiwan's Cold War Spy Pilots Reveal Secret Missions." AFP, 23 Aug. 2010. [http://www.afp.com]

Taiwanese pilots of the 35th "Black Cats" Squadron flew U-2 airplanes over China from 1961 until 1974. Their activities "made the squadron a key element in the intelligence relationship between the US government and Taiwan's Nationalist rulers." See also, Associated Press, "Taiwanese Spy Plane Pilots Honored for Perilous Cold War Missions," International Herald Tribune, 4 Jul. 2007; and William B. Tomlinson, "Chinese Industry from the Air," Studies in Intelligence 11, no. 2 (Spring 1967): 37-50.

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