OTHER COUNTRIES

Spain

General, Post-Cold War, and ETA

1. General

Brodeur, Jean-Paul, Peter Gill, and Dennis Töllborg, eds. Democracy, Law and Security:  Internal Security Services in Contemporary Europe.  New York:  Columbia University Press, 2003. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003.

Peake, Studies 47.3 (2003), notes that this work is "drawn from papers presented at two symposia in Gothenburg, Sweden, that compare intelligence services in 10 countries:  Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.  The various chapters look at historical, organizational, and political differences.... In most cases, very little has been published in English about the services discussed, and that enhances the book's importance.  For students of intelligence, and especially counterintelligence, this is a very worthwhile contribution."

For Henderson, IJI&C 17.3, this work "provides useful background reference material on several less well-known European domestic security systems." However, "the index and bibliography ... are generally weak"; and the "collection lacks, except for Spain, organizational charts for the various national communities and individual services."

Díaz Fernández, Antonio M.

1. "Halfway Down the Road to Supervision of the Spanish Intelligence Services." Intelligence and National Security 21, no. 3 (Jun. 2006): 440-456.

"Supervision ... is still unfinished business, as was clearly demonstrated by the difficulties experienced in the work of the commission of inquiry into the terrorist attack of 11 March 2004." The Higher Defense Intelligence Center (CESID) was created in 1977. The reforms of May 2002 replaced CESID with the Centro Nacional de Inteligencia (CNI). The author argues that, even with recent reform efforts, parliamentary and judicial "supervision of CNI remains a virtual fallacy."

2. Los servicios de inteligencia españoles: Desde la guerra civil hasta el 11-M. Historia de una transición. [The Spanish Intelligence Services: From the Civil War to 11-M: History of a Transition] Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 2005.

Aftergood, Secrecy News, 2 Jun. 2005, notes that this "is the first comprehensive treatment" of the intelligence and security services in Spain. The work includes "an introduction to the field of intelligence for general readers and a comprehensive assessment of the services of other countries."

3. "The Spanish Intelligence Community: A Diffuse Reality." Intelligence and National Security 25, no. 2 (Apr. 2010): 223-244.

"Spain has, in its Prime Minister's Office," all the elements of an intelligence community, "but in a disorganized manner, and lacks functional political organs to which to ponder evolving needs."

Díaz Matey, Gustavo. "The Development of Intelligence Studies in Spain." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 23, no. 4 (Winter 2010-2011): 748-765.

"Since the 1980s, and especially since the end of the Cold War, the academic discipline of Intelligence Studies has undergone a progressive revolution in Spain." Nevertheless, "Intelligence Studies remains only an incipient discipline in Spain."

Goberna Falque, Juan R. Inteligencia, Espionaje y Servicios Secretos en España. [Intelligence, Espionage and Secret Services in Spain] Madrid: Ministerio de Defensa, 2008. [Kahn, I&NS 23.2 (Apr. 2008)]

Goberna Falque, Juan R. "La 'cultura de la inteligencia' y la Historia contemporánea de España: Problemas actuales y perspectivos de futuro." [The Culture of Intelligence and the Contemporary History of Spain: Current Problems and Future Perspectives] Empiria 11 (Jan.-Jun. 2006): 93-106. [Kahn, I&NS 23.2 (Apr. 2008)]

Goberna Falque, Juan R. "Los servicios de inteligencia en la historiografia española." [The Intelligence Services in Spanish Historiography] Arbor 180 (Jan. 2005): 25-74. [Kahn, I&NS 23.2 (Apr. 2008)]

Kahn, David. "Intelligence Studies on the Continent." Intelligence and National Security 23, no. 2 (Apr. 2008): 249-275.

The scholarship of David Kahn never ceases to amaze. Here, he reviews the literature on intelligence coming out of France, Germany, and Spain.

2. Post-Cold War

Arostegui, Martin C. "Spy Ring for Cuba Uncovered." Miami Herald, 19 Jan. 1999. [http://www.herald.com]

Spanish prosecutors "have charged five members of Spanish military intelligence and a businessman" with spying for Cuba. "The ring's activity involved secret meetings in Miami between the Spanish spies and their Cuban handlers, plus money laundering, industrial espionage and disseminating disinformation favorable to Cuba."

Associated Press. "Spanish Ex-Spy Convicted of Stealing Secrets." 11 Feb. 2010. [http://www.nytimes.com]

On 11 February 2010, Roberto Florez Garcia, a former Spanish intelligence officer, was convicted of "trying to sell secrets to Russia" and sentenced to 12 years in prison. "The court said it did not have conclusive proof that Florez Garcia had actually succeeded in selling or handing over sensitive information.... The newspaper El Pais said the CIA tipped off Spanish investigators about Florez Garcia's activities."

Chandrasekaran, Rajiv. "7 Spaniards Killed In Iraqi Ambush." Washington Post, 30 Nov. 2003, A1. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

"More than a dozen insurgents ambushed and killed seven Spanish intelligence officers on [29 November 2003] on a highway near [Latifiya,] south of Baghdad.... Spain's defense minister, Frederico Trillo, said in a televised address that the soldiers, from the country's National Intelligence Center, had eaten lunch in Baghdad and were 'on their way to carry out reconnaissance in the area.'"

Matei, Florina Cristiana, and Thomas C. Bruneau. "Policymakers and Intelligence Reform in the New Democracies." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 24, no. 4 (Winter 2011-2012): 656-691.

The authors look at Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Poland, Romania, Spain, and Russia ("a stunning case of democratic regress"). In "at least four" of these countries -- "Poland, Brazil, Romania, and Spain -- the decisionmakers have managed to institutionalize agencies that are either transparent or effective, or both."

3. ETA

Alexander, Yonah, Michael S. Swetnam, and.Herbert M. Levine. ETA: Profile of a Terrorist Group. Ardsley, NY: Transnational, 2001.

Woodworth, Paddy. Dirty War, Clean Hands: ETA, the GAL, and Spanish Democracy. Rev. & updated. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003.

According to Jonkers, AFIO WIN 11-03 (19 Mar. 2003), the author "describes the policies of the Spanish government in combating the Basque terrorist group ETA over the past 40 years. He reflects on what happens when a democratic administration begins to use terrorist methods ... against a terrorist group.... He argues that such a strategy undermines democracy's best arguments against terrorism in principle, and has a deeply negative effect in practice."

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