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South Africa

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Africa, Sandra. "The Role, Prospects and Expectations of the TBVC [Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda, and Ciskei] Intelligence Services during an Interim Government Period," Strategic Review for Southern Africa 14, no. 2 (Oct. 1992): 78-94.

Barber, James. "BOSS [Bureau of State Security] in Britain." African Affairs 82, no. 328 (1983): 311-328.

According to the Royal Historical Society Database, this article covers the period from 1950 to 1983.

Berridge, G.R. "The Ethnic 'Agent in Place': English-Speaking Civil Servants and Nationalist South Africa, 1948-57." Intelligence and National Security 4, no. 2 (Apr. 1989): 257-267.

Boraz, Steven C., and Thomas C. Bruneau. "Reforming Intelligence: Democracy and Effectiveness." Journal of Democracy 17, no. 3 (Jul. 2006): 28-42.

"Democratizing or newly democratic countries ... must deal with the ... arduous task of transforming intelligence bureaucracies that once served undemocratic regimes." South Africa and Taiwan "have met the challenge of intelligence reform in varying ways, while Russia "has seen an intelligence establishment inherited from Soviet days promote a recent backslide toward authoritarianism."

Born, Hans, Loch K. Johnson, and Ian Leigh, eds. Who's Watching the Spies? Establishing Intelligence Service Accountability. Dulles, VA: Potomac, 2005.

From publisher: The authors "examine the strengths and weaknesses of the intelligence systems of Argentina, Canada, Germany, Norway, Poland, South Africa, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States."

Peake, Studies 50.2 (2006), comments that "[t]he experiences of each nation provide an interesting mosaic of desired goals and problems of implementation.... It is a timely topic and worth the attention of all those who must deal with these issues everyday as well as the general public whose civil rights are affected when oversight is too robust or inadequate." To Jacoby, DIJ 16.2 (2007), this work "succeeds greatly as an informative source on the workings of current intelligence oversight systems." However, "[t]he reader is left wanting recommendations and commentary on the ethics of intelligence oversight."

For Winn, Parameters, Summer 2006, this "valuable contribution ... addresses the central criteria that should be taken into account by any nation or international organization that hopes to place intelligence agencies under democratic supervision.... [T]he objectives are to ensure that intelligence and security agencies are insulated from political abuse, but not isolated from executive governance."

Brown, I&NS 21.6 (Dec. 2006), finds this work to be "a diappointment. Most of the material is dry and sometimes soporific. It is also biased toward the advocates of intelligence accountability," in that the "essays all address the positives of such a program, but not the negatives.... A debate format would have been much more appropriate..., and could have easily been accomplished by excluding numerous irrelevant and tedious essays."

Brandt, Johanna. Petticoat Commando, or, Boer Women in Secret Service. London: Mills, 1913. [Chambers]

Bruneau, Thomas C., and Steven C. Boraz, eds. Reforming Intelligence: Obstacles to Democratic Control and Effectiveness. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2007.

According to Peake, Studies 52.1 (Mar. 2008) and Intelligencer 16.1 (Spring 2008), this book's 13 chapters include "studies that discuss democratic control and effectiveness in three Western nations -- the United States, the United Kingdom, and France -- and seven new democracies -- Brazil, Taiwan, Argentina, Romania, South Africa, Russia, and the Philippines." Reforming Intelligence "is well documented, well written, and should serve as a foundation for studying this persistent problem."

Reddig, NIPQ 23.4 (Sep. 2007), calls this a "useful and thought provoking compendium of case studies," dealing with "the challenge of maintaining an intelligence establishment in a democratic framework." For Skarstedt, NIJ 1.1 (2009), "[a]ll of the authors provide outstanding analysis of their various subjects, and this book is a comprehensive study of intelligence reform and its problems. The commoin theme shared by all of the authors is that intelligence must be closely controlled."

Carr, Barbara. Spy in the Sun: The Story of Yuriy Loginov. Cape Town, South Africa: Howard Timmins, 1969.

Constantinides: Loginov was a Soviet illegal arrested in South Africa in 1967. The report is based on official records, and sometimes reads like it. "The many faults and shortcomings overshadow one of the lengthier and more complete expositions of Soviet illegal modus operandi, which stands up if particular details do not."

Cilliers, Jackie, and Markus Reichart, eds. About Turn: The Transformation of the South African Military and Intelligence. Johannesburg: Institute for Defense Studies, 1995.

Cummings, Richard. "A Diamond Is Forever: Mandela Triumphs, Buthelezi and de Klerk Survive, and ANC on the U.S. Payroll." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 8, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 155-177.

Cummings surveys the U.S. support to elements of the anti-apartheid movement. He gives particular attention to Allard K. Lowenstein's involvement with the CIA in South Africa [see Cummings' The Pied Piper (1985)]. The rise and decline of Buthelezi as a Right wing alternative to the ANC and Mandela's "incredible balancing act" in setting up his government also get comment. There is an element of continuing to blacken Lowenstein's reputation here, as in the earlier book. Cummings clearly has difficulty in understanding the existence and validity of an "anti-communist Left" in the American political spectrum. He has done well to confine his conspiracist innuendo about the deaths of Tom Gervasi and Sam Adams to the footnotes (see fn. 9, pp. 170-171).

Daley, Suzanne. "South African Links Top Spy to the Slaying of Olof Palme." New York Times, 27 Sep. 1996, A10.

Henderson, Robert D'A. "The Clandestine Armed Struggle for South Africa 1961-1990: Two Competing Histories." Conflict Quarterly 13, no. 1 (Winter 1993), 68-76.

Henderson, Robert D'A.

1. "De Klerk and 'Law and Order' in South Africa." Commentary 5 (Aug. 1990): 1-8.

2. "De Klerk's Relationship with the South African Intelligence." Commentary 15 (Nov. 1991): 1-8.

Henderson, Robert D'A. "Operation Vula Against Apartheid." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 10, no. 4 (Winter 1997-1998): 418-455.

Operation Vula was an ambitious ANC plan for a general insurrection in South Africa. It was discovered by South African security in July 1990, but had been in operation for almost two years prior to that. In this article, Henderson traces the origins, participants, and activities of the operation.

Henderson, Robert D'A.

The author argues that "de Klerk's control over his 'inherited' intelligence and security community ... was intrinsically weak from the beginning." Items covered include the intelligence and security structure inherited from Botha, the embarrassing intelligence hoax in Namibia, de Klerk's structural changes, and diagrams of the South African security and intelligence community as of 1 March 1993. After the April 1994 elections, "Mandela gave all the security portfolios to his ANC ministers.... Presumably, responsibility for the National Intelligence Service will remain under the Office of the President."

2. "South African Intelligence Transition from De Klerk to Mandela: An Update." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 8, no. 4 (Winter 1995): 471-485.

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